Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives 9.1 Describe leading as a management function and explain how it differs from leadership. 9.2 Discuss the types of power a manager."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives 9.1 Describe leading as a management function and explain how it differs from leadership. 9.2 Discuss the types of power a manager can possess and the pros and cons of each type as it impacts the ability to lead effectively. 9.3 Describe the effect of workplace conflict on employees and specific actions a manager can take to resolve conflict. 9.4 Identify the tools a manager can employ to facilitate leading. 9.5 Understand what motivates employees to work and describe how a manager can enhance employee motivation.
What is the difference Between Leading and Leadership?
Leadership – focus is usually long-term and visionary. Leading – focus is usually short-term and its goal is to get the day-to-day work done efficiently and effectively.
Managers Sources of Power Legitimate Power – the authority a manager has by virtue of his or her position in an organization. Reward Power – the ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards. Coercive Power – the ability of a manager to punish others. Expert Power – power that is based on the special knowledge, skills, and expertise that a leader possesses. Referent Power – the power a manager possesses from having earned the respect, admiration, and loyalty of colleagues.
Managers Influence Tactics Rational Persuasion – Trying to convince someone by using reason, logic, or facts. Inspirational Appeals – Trying to build enthusiasm or confidence by appealing to others emotions, ideals, or values. Consultation – Getting others to participate in a decision or change. Ingratiating Tactics – Acting humble or friendly or making someone feel good or feel important before making a request. Personal Appeals – Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.
Managers Influence Tactics - continued Exchange Tactics – Reminding someone of past favors or offering to trade favors. Coalition Tactics – Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone. Pressure Tactics – Using demands, threats, or intimidation to gain compliance. Legitimating Tactics – Basing a request on ones authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors.
Responses to Influences The use of influence elicits one of three responses from its recipient(s): Commitment – The recipient agrees with the request and strives to implement it with energy and engagement, going beyond what is requested. Compliance – The recipient is will to do what is requested, but is not enthusiastic about it and will do only what is requested and no more. Resistance – The recipient is opposed to the request and resistant to carrying it out. Commitment is the desired response for influence and should be sought at every opportunity.
What are a Managers Tools for Leading?
Managers have three powerful tools they use for leading Empowerment – The process by which a manager transfers or shares power with employees. Delegation – The assignment of management authority and responsibility to employees lower in the organization. Persuasion – Efforts to convince an audience that ideas are logical and valid and to act in a certain way.
Empowerment Empowerment is one of the most effective tools for leading. Empowerment allows employees to expand their knowledge and task skill by giving them the authority to make decisions without consulting a manager. Empowerment has the following benefits: Increases employee emotional and intellectual involvement in the work, which corresponds to a greater commitment to goal achievement, lower absenteeism and lower turnover. Cuts costs and improves quality by making employees accountable for outcomes. Raises job satisfaction and enhances customer loyalty. Develops specific knowledge of work tasks which can reduce the time a manager has to spend on day-to-day supervision.
Delegation Delegation is plausible when work exceeds the capacity a manager can handle or when cross training is needed to develop an employees supervisory skills. Delegated tasks may be permanent or temporary. It is essential that managers know when to delegate, as failure to master delegation is one reason that many managers fail. Delegated tasks should be carefully matched with an employees skills and abilities. Tasks that include confidential and personal matters should not be delegated. Delegation provides an opportunity for a manager and employee to build trust.
Persuasion A managers ability to persuade employees to do what they request is essential to leading. Persuasion relies heavily on four tenets: Knowing your employees (what do they care about). Building personal credibility (trust and respect). Appealing to employee emotions (using relevant examples). Using logical arguments (facts, figures, and evidence). Effective persuasion can influence employee buy-in and gain commitment to requests. A downside to persuasion is that it has the potential to be viewed as manipulation, which can cause employees to loose trust and become resistant to future requests.
What is Conflict?
Conflict – a clash of interests, objectives, or personalities between individuals, between individuals and groups, or between groups within an organization.
Effect of Conflict on Leading Conflict can be both good and bad, depending on how much exists, how it is perceived and how it is managed. A positive to conflict is that it can raise performance by thwarting apathy and indecision and stimulation employees to consider new ideas and innovative ways of doing things. A negative to conflict is that it can erode performance by infighting which produces division among employees and lowers employee morale.
Sources of Conflict Three common sources of conflict include: Personality – arises from subjective personal likes and dislikes– opinions, values, attitudes, behaviors, and appearance, rather than objective organizational sources, such as process or structure. Interdepartmental – arises when departments are at cross- purposes and have different goals. Intradepartmental – arises within a department and is usually closely related to work.
Additional Sources of Conflict Additional sources of conflict include: The appearance of an unfair allocation of equipment, materials, supplies, and other resources. Expressed disagreements about what is an is not important. Changes in work flow or conditions that imply a change in status. A growing sense of mistrust among employees. Lack of stability in departmental operations.
Steps to Handling Conflict A basic approach to handling conflict involves six steps: Decide what you want to accomplish. Call together the people who can settle the issue. Be ready to negotiate or bargain, dont hand out edicts. Dont be distracted by personalities. Focus attention on mutually beneficial outcomes. Consider the merits of relationship-healing tactics.
Conflict Handling Techniques Avoiding Maybe the problem will go away. Avoiding involves ignoring or suppressing a conflict. Avoidance is appropriate for trivial issues or when emotions are high and a cooling off period is needed. Avoidance is not appropriate for complex or escalating problems. Avoidance provides only a temporary fix and sidesteps the underlying problem. Accommodating Lets do it your way. Accommodating managers neglect the immediate concerns of the department to satisfy the concerns of an employee or employees. Accommodating is appropriate when it is possible to get something in return at a later time or when the issue is not that important.
Conflict Handling Techniques - continued Accommodating is not appropriate for complex or escalating problems. An advantage to accommodating is that it encourages cooperation and maintains peace. Forcing You must do it my way. Forcing relies on a managers power and authority to resolve a conflict by ordering compliance. Forcing is appropriate when an unpopular solution must be implemented. An advantage of forcing is speed, as it can obtain results quickly. A disadvantage of forcing is that it does not really resolve conflict and make exaggerate it by causing hurt feelings and resentment.
Conflict Handling Techniques - continued Collaborating Lets cooperate to reach a win win solution. Collaborating takes a direct approach to achieving a solution that benefits both parties. It is appropriate for complex problems plagued by misunderstanding. An advantage of collaborating is that it has a long-lasting impact and deals with the underlying problem. A disadvantage of collaborating is that it often takes time to achieve a win-win solution for those involved.
Mediation and Arbitration Some conflicts are best handled by an independent, third party experienced in negotiating resolutions through mediation or arbitration. Mediation A neutral third party facilitates discussion between the parties in conflict and assists in developing options for a mutually agreed upon resolution. Mediation is a low cost option for resolving minor workplace conflicts, when confidentiality is paramount. Arbitration A neutral third party evaluates information submitted regarding a conflict and determines a resolution, which is legally binding on both parties. Arbitration is a cost-and time-effective alternative to litigation, and is used to resolve major conflicts when the parties are unreasonable.
How can Managers Lead Change?
An important job for a manager is to transform the way an organization does business in order to make it more efficient and effective. To be a successful change agent, managers must support their employees and teams and advocate for them by: Engaging in communications that are honest about the change. Creating a safe space to share change related stresses and emotions. Standing up for employees to get resources or give representation. Managing the workload to minimize confusion during change. Delivering regular feedback to sustain awareness and minimize resistance.
Resistance to Change When employees dont understand the need for change, they often react with resistance. Reasons for resistance include: Loss of control – the feeling that change is being done to you, rather than with or by you. Uncertainty of trust – the fear that the implications of change have not been communicated to you honestly. Loss of identity – the fear that your role, status, or competence will be challenged by the change. Lack of reward – the feeling that the change has no benefit for you in terms of better pay, working conditions, working hours, etc.
Reasons why Change Fails
Change efforts fail for two reasons: 1.Employees are not prepared to accept, implement, and sustain the change. 2.The change effort is poorly conceived and managed.
Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change There are six strategies that can be employed to overcome resistance to change. Education and Communication – The who, what, where, and why of change needs to be communicated to employees at every opportunity to educate and reinforce the change. Participation – Participation enhances understanding and invokes feelings of control. It promotes ownership and reduces uncertainty. Support– Regular communication and information about a change reinforces that employee concerns are being heard and addressed.
Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change - continued Negotiation – Negotiation involves specific exchanges and incentives in return for agreement to support a change. Manipulation – Manipulation involves selectively using information and incentives to influence compliance of resistant employees. Manipulation can become a devious behavior if a manager is unable to deliver what is promised. Coercion – The use of authority or threat of punishment to get employees to comply to the change. May be the only step if time is short and the change is not popular.
What Roles do Coaching and Counseling Play in Leading?
Coaching – an effective way to develop employee commitment and performance by working one-on-one with a manager who observes, demonstrates, questions, and provides feedback to the employee. Counseling – a supportive process whereby a manager helps an employee work through a problem or organizational change to redirect employee performance.
What is Motivation?
Motivation – the process that compels a person to behave in a certain manner in order to satisfy highly individual needs. People behave differently because of their unique personalities, backgrounds, and past experiences.
Personality Traits that Affect Motivation The most significant personality traits that drive the way people are inclined to think, feel, and act are referred to as the Big Five. They include: Extroversion (positiveness) – the degree to which an employee is assertive, talkative, friendly, and upbeat. Neuroticism (criticalness) – the degree to which an employee is overly critical about himself or herself. Agreeableness (likability) – the degree to which an employee is kind and sympathetic, and builds good relationships with co-workers. Conscientiousness (thoroughness) – the degree to which an employee has self-discipline, is well organized, likes to play, and carefully follows directions. Openness to Experience (risk taking) – the degree to which an employee is receptive to new challenges, imaginative and insightful, and has a wide range of interests.
Employee Needs that Affect Motivation Employees seek satisfaction from work and life in relation to what psychologist A.H. Maslow called the five basic needs. We Need to Be Alive and to Stay Alive – We have physiological needs– to breathe, eat, sleep, reproduce, see, hear, and feel. We Need to Feel Safe – We like to feel that we are safe from accidents, job loss, criminals, or an uncertain future. We Need to Be Social – We desire a sense of community, where we care about others and they care about us. We Need to Feel Worth and Respected – We like to think well of ourselves and have others do likewise. We Need to be Good at Something and Use Our Talents – We like to live up to our full potential and prove that we are good at certain tasks.
Motivating Employees There are many ways in which a manager can motivate employees, some of those include: Satisfy employee needs Treat employees fairly Tailor jobs to employees interests and strengths Create an engaged workforce
Satisfy Employee Needs Managers need to be able to fulfill an individuals basic needs which include: Physiological Need Safety Need Social Need Esteem Need Self-Actualization Need
Treat Employees Fairly Employees are highly concerned about equity in the workplace. Equity – an employees perception of the fairness in the application of rewards to oneself and others for their efforts. Employees may alter their levels of motivation when they perceive that other employees are contributing less and receiving more. Employees need to see a consistent pattern of what is rewarded and the rationale for it.
Tailor Jobs to Employees Interests and Strengths Employees can be greatly motivated by the design of their jobs and their involvement in work decisions. Managers can increase an employees job motivation through: Work that is interesting and challenging. Work that fully utilizes ones capabilities. Work that is meaningful and recognizes achievement. Work that offers benefits and job security. Work with congenial people in a good environment. Managers can tailor jobs to an employees strengths and interests through the process of job redesign. Job Redesign – The process of carefully restructuring a job to foster productivity and appeal to the interests of the employees who carry it out.
Five Core Dimensions of Job Redesign Task Identity (job completeness) – this dimension allows an employee to take a task from beginning to end to experience fulfillment in seeing a definable product completed or service delivered. Task Significance (work importance) – this dimension allows an employee to see the impact of his or her work has on co-workers, customers, or finished products. Skill Variety (multiplicity) – this dimension enables employees to use a diverse set of skills in their work to avoid feelings of confinement or monotony. Autonomy (self direction) – this dimension permits employees a degree of empowerment by granting them freedom to make meaningful choices about how the work is done. Feedback (results) – this dimension allows direct information from the work to circle back to the employee in order to evaluate the quality of the work for continuous self- improvement.
Create and Engaged Workforce Engagement is the measure of the energy, level of effort, and personal initiative that an employee brings to a job on a regular basis. Employee Engagement – the feelings of involvement, commitment, and ownership in the organization by workers. Benefits of an engaged workforce includes: Lower turnover, absenteeism, accident rates, and internal theft. Higher levels of employee pride, productivity, customer loyalty, and profitability.