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Conceptual Design Modeling the rules of organization Modeling the rules of organization Building ER model Building ER model.

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Presentation on theme: "Conceptual Design Modeling the rules of organization Modeling the rules of organization Building ER model Building ER model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conceptual Design Modeling the rules of organization Modeling the rules of organization Building ER model Building ER model

2 Penyewaan Buku Business Rules 1. Seorang ANGGOTA boleh meminjam lebih dari satu BUKU 2. Satu jenis BUKU memiliki lebih dari satu salinan 3. Beberapa ANGGOTA boleh meminjam satu atau lebih jenis BUKU yang sama 4. Untuk setiap PEMINJAMAN harus dikembalikan tepat pada waktunya, jika tidak akan dikenakan denda

3 ER Model Penyewaan Buku ANGGOTA Id_Anggota BUKU Id_Buku Jumlah_Salinan PEMINJAMAN Id_Peminjaman Id_Buku Id_Anggota Tgl_Pinjam Tgl_HrsKembali Tgl_Kembali Denda has

4 Tempat Kursus Business Rules 1. Seorang SISWA boleh mengambil satu atau lebih KELAS 2. Satu KELAS terdiri dari satu atau banyak SISWA 3. Satu GURU boleh mengajar di satu atau banyak KELAS 4. Satu RUANGAN dapat digunakan oleh satu atau banyak KELAS

5 ER Model Tempat Kursus SISWA Id_Siswa GURU Id_GURU KELAS Id_Kelas has RUANGAN Id_Ruangan has

6 A hospital in-patient system Business Rules A hospital is organised into a number of wards. A hospital is organised into a number of wards. Each ward has a ward number and a name recorded, along with a number of beds in that ward. Each ward has a ward number and a name recorded, along with a number of beds in that ward. Each ward is staffed by nurses. Each ward is staffed by nurses. Nurses have their staff number and name recorded, and are assigned to a single ward. Nurses have their staff number and name recorded, and are assigned to a single ward. Each patient in the hospital has a patient identification number, and their name, address and date of birth are recorded. Each patient in the hospital has a patient identification number, and their name, address and date of birth are recorded. Each patient is under the care of a single consultant and is assigned to a single ward. Each patient is under the care of a single consultant and is assigned to a single ward. Each consultant is responsible for a number of patients. Each consultant is responsible for a number of patients. Consultants have their staff number, name and specialism recorded. Consultants have their staff number, name and specialism recorded.

7 Exercise on In-patient system 1.State 4 entities for the system giving a suitable identifier for each entity. ward, nurse, patient, consultant 2.Draw an entity-relationship diagram to show the relationships between the entities.

8 Hospital In-Patients ER Model WARD Ward_Id NumberOfBeds PATIENT Patient_Id Patient_Name Patient_Address Patient_DoB NURSE Staff_No Nurse_Name Staffed by CONSULTANT Staff_No Consultant_Name Consultant_Spc has

9 9 The Enhanced E-R Model and Business Rules Modern Database Management 6 th Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott, Fred R. McFadden

10 10 Supertypes and Subtypes Subtype: A subgrouping of the entities in an entity type which has attributes that are distinct from those in other subgroupings Subtype: A subgrouping of the entities in an entity type which has attributes that are distinct from those in other subgroupings Supertype: An generic entity type that has a relationship with one or more subtypes Supertype: An generic entity type that has a relationship with one or more subtypes Inheritance: Inheritance: –Subtype entities inherit values of all attributes of the supertype –An instance of a subtype is also an instance of the supertype

11 11 Figure 4-1 Basic notation for supertype/subtype relationships

12 12 Figure Employee supertype with three subtypes All employee subtypes will have emp nbr, name, address, and date-hired Each employee subtype will also have its own attributes

13 13 Relationships and Subtypes Relationships at the supertype level indicate that all subtypes will participate in the relationship Relationships at the supertype level indicate that all subtypes will participate in the relationship The instances of a subtype may participate in a relationship unique to that subtype. In this situation, the relationship is shown at the subtype level The instances of a subtype may participate in a relationship unique to that subtype. In this situation, the relationship is shown at the subtype level

14 14 Figure Supertype/subtype relationships in a hospital Both outpatients and resident patients are cared for by a responsible physician Only resident patients are assigned to a bed

15 15 Generalization and Specialization Generalization: The process of defining a more general entity type from a set of more specialized entity types. BOTTOM-UP Generalization: The process of defining a more general entity type from a set of more specialized entity types. BOTTOM-UP Specialization: The process of defining one or more subtypes of the supertype, and forming supertype/subtype relationships. TOP- DOWN Specialization: The process of defining one or more subtypes of the supertype, and forming supertype/subtype relationships. TOP- DOWN

16 16 Figure 4-4 – Example of generalization (a) Three entity types: CAR, TRUCK, and MOTORCYCLE All these types of vehicles have common attributes

17 17 Figure 4-4(b) – Generalization to VEHICLE supertype So we put the shared attributes in a supertype Note: no subtype for motorcycle, since it has no unique attributes

18 18 Figure 4-5 – Example of specialization (a) Entity type PART Only applies to manufactured parts Applies only to purchased parts

19 19 Figure 4-5(b) – Specialization to MANUFACTURED PART and PURCHASED PART Note: multivalued attribute was replaced by a relationship to another entity Created 2 subtypes

20 20 Constraints in Supertype/ Completeness Constraint Completeness Constraints : Whether an instance of a supertype must also be a member of at least one subtype Completeness Constraints : Whether an instance of a supertype must also be a member of at least one subtype –Total Specialization Rule: Yes (double line) –Partial Specialization Rule: No (single line)

21 21 Figure 4-6 – Examples of completeness constraints (a) Total specialization rule A patient must be either an outpatient or a resident patient

22 22 Figure 4-6(b) – Partial specialization rule A vehicle could be a car, a truck, or neither

23 23 Constraints in Supertype/ Disjointness constraint Disjointness Constraints : Whether an instance of a supertype may simultaneously be a member of two (or more) subtypes. Disjointness Constraints : Whether an instance of a supertype may simultaneously be a member of two (or more) subtypes. –Disjoint Rule: An instance of the supertype can be only ONE of the subtypes –Overlap Rule: An instance of the supertype could be more than one of the subtypes

24 24 (a) Disjoint rule Figure 4-7 – Examples of disjointness constraints A patient can either be outpatient or resident, but not both

25 25 Figure 4-7(b) Overlap rule A part may be both purchased and manufactured

26 26 Constraints in Supertype/ Subtype Discriminators Subtype Discriminator : An attribute of the supertype whose values determine the target subtype(s) Subtype Discriminator : An attribute of the supertype whose values determine the target subtype(s) –Disjoint – a simple attribute with alternative values to indicate the possible subtypes –Overlapping – a composite attribute whose subparts pertain to different subtypes. Each subpart contains a boolean value to indicate whether or not the instance belongs to the associated subtype

27 27 Figure 4-8 – Introducing a subtype discriminator ( disjoint rule) A simple attribute with different possible values indicating the subtype

28 28 Figure 4-9 – Subtype discriminator ( overlap rule) A composite attribute with sub-attributes indicating yes or no to determine whether it is of each subtype

29 29 Figure 4-10 – Example of supertype/subtype hierarchy

30 PR Kasus Rumah Sakit: Kasus Rumah Sakit: 1. Definisikan Business Rules-nya! 2. Buatlah ER diagram untuk kasus tersebut dimana didalamnya terdapat completeness constraints, disjointness constraints, subtype discriminator.

31 Bersambung minggu depan……. Bersambung minggu depan…….

32 32 Entity Clusters EER diagrams are difficult to read when there are too many entities and relationships EER diagrams are difficult to read when there are too many entities and relationships Solution: group entities and relationships into entity clusters Solution: group entities and relationships into entity clusters Entity cluster: set of one or more entity types and associated relationships grouped into a single abstract entity type Entity cluster: set of one or more entity types and associated relationships grouped into a single abstract entity type

33 33 Figure 4-13(a) – Possible entity clusters for Pine Valley Furniture Related groups of entities could become clusters

34 34 Figure 4-13(b) – EER diagram of PVF entity clusters More readable, isnt it?

35 35 Business rules Statements that define or constrain some aspect of the business. Statements that define or constrain some aspect of the business. Constraints can impact: Constraints can impact: –Structure (definition, domain, relationship) –Behavior (operational constraints) Classification of business rules: Classification of business rules: –Derivation – rule derived from other knowledge –Structural assertion – rule expressing static structure –Action assertion – rule expressing constraints/control of organizational actions

36 36 Figure 4-15 – EER depiction of business rules classification Source: adapted from GUIDE Business Rules Project, 1997.

37 37 Action Assertion Classifications Result Result –Condition – IF/THEN rule –Integrity constraint – must always be true –Authorization – privilege statement Form Form –Enabler – leads to creation of new object –Timer – allows or disallows an action –Executive – executes one or more actions Rigor Rigor –Controlling – something must or must not happen –Influencing – guideline for which a notification must occur

38 38 Stating an Action Assertion Anchor Object – an object on which actions are limited Anchor Object – an object on which actions are limited Action – creation, deletion, update, or read Action – creation, deletion, update, or read Corresponding Objects – an object influencing the ability to perform an action on another business rule Corresponding Objects – an object influencing the ability to perform an action on another business rule Action assertion will identify corresponding objects that constrain the ability to perform actions on anchor objects

39 39 Figure 4-16 – Data model segment for class scheduling

40 40 Figure 4-17 – Business Rule 1: For a faculty member to be assigned to teach a section of a course, the faculty member must be qualified to teach the course for which that section is scheduled Action assertion Anchor object Corresponding object R In this case, the action assertion is a R estriction

41 41 Figure 4-18 – Business Rule 2: For a faculty member to be assigned to teach a section of a course, the faculty member must not be assigned to teach a total of more than three course sections Action assertionAnchor object Corresponding object In this case, the action assertion is an ULIM U pper LIM it


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