2 UNIT 8: DEFINITIONS, EXEMPLIFICATION & CLASSIFICATION Objectives:To identify a text organization of definition and exemplificationTo understand the use of the adjective clausesTo identify a text organization of classification
3 1. Definitions and Exemplifications The purpose of a paragraph of definition is to define, explain, or clarify the meaning of something. Because of the nature of definition, it may involve analysis, comparison and contrast.A paragraph of definition provides the meaning or an example of a term or concept. Paragraphs of definition often begin with a single-sentence dictionary definition as a topic sentence and then go on to provide further explanation or examples.
4 signal words for definitions This is referred to asX is/are known asX is/areX can be defined asX refers toX meansThis means thatIn other wordsX is/are called
5 Sample paragraphMan and most animals can only exist near the surface of the earth in the region known as the biosphere. The biosphere is the thin layer of soil, water and air in which all life exists.
6 b. ExemplificationIt is often useful in definitions to give examples; this action is known as exemplification (or exemplifying).Signal words:For example As an exampleSome examples are An illustration ofFor instance An instance of this wassuch as Another exampleThis is analogous to examples of which
7 Sample ParagraphIn capitals such as Brasilia, monumental modern structures determine the appearance of the city. Such buildings, however, are not the only structures created by architects. They also create buildings that are used by all of us in our everyday lives. Houses, stores, shopping malls, schools, and factories, for example, are usually built according to an architect’s instructions.
8 Grammar points: Adjective Clauses A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence.A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause.An adjective clause is a dependent clause, which modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun. (It is also called a relative clause)
9 The pattern of Adjective Clauses 1. Using Subject Pronouns: WHO, WHICH, THAT2. Using Object Pronouns: WHOM, WHICH, THAT3. Using WHOSE (possession)4. Using WHERE5. Using WHEN6. Using EXPRESSIONS of QUANTITY
10 Sample paragraphParasitology may be defined as the branch of biology, which deals with the nature of parasitism and its effects on both the parasite and the host. Broadly defined, a parasite is an organism, which lives for all or part of its life on or in another organism from which it derives some benefits, such as food, shelter or protection.
11 3. ClassificationsClassification means the grouping of items to show relationship between them. Items that are classified together have something in common; that is something must apply to all the items in that group or category. Therefore, paragraphs that divide people, places, or things into categories are called paragraph of classification.
12 signal words used in classification: X consists of ……..to classifyto sub-classifyto categorizeto sub-categorizefall intoX may be classified according to ………may be divided into ……….may be sub-divided into ……..
13 ExamplesWeathering process can be divided into two classes: physical weathering and chemical weathering.Weathering process may be classified as physical and chemical.There are two kinds of weathering process: physical and chemical.Examples of physical weathering agents include ice, heat wind and water.