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Exercise physiology Objective:To know and understand the physiological effects of physical loading and exercise and measurement of physical condition and.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise physiology Objective:To know and understand the physiological effects of physical loading and exercise and measurement of physical condition and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise physiology Objective:To know and understand the physiological effects of physical loading and exercise and measurement of physical condition and the effects of physical training. Contents: Theory and exercises (1) Basics of exercise physiology (2) Energy production in exercise (3) Circulatory functions in exercise (4) Pulmonary functions in exercise

2 PHYSIOLOGY? Study of functions of living matter Explains starting,evolving and continuing the physical and chemical factors of life Areas of physiology: - virology, bakteriology - cell physiology - physiology of plants,animals and humans - nutrition physiology. (1)BASICS OF EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY

3 AREAS OF PHYSICAL CAPACITY Energy production - Aerobic processes - Anaerobic processes Neuromuscular functions - Force production - Teknics Psychological factors - Motivation - Tactics

4 LOADING? Physical loading of Physical loading of - Growth and development - Resting state - Exessive loading of exercise - Environmental loading Psychological loading Psychological loading Combined effect Combined effect

5 Percieved exertion of loading? Systemic level Systemic level Cellular level Cellular level Molecular level Molecular level Level of regulatory systems Level of regulatory systems Level of body organisms Level of body organisms Physical and psychological factors combined Physical and psychological factors combined

6 Physical loading: Activity of motor cortex Activity of motor cortex muscular activity muscular activity activation of breathing center activation of breathing center regulation of circulation regulation of circulation pituitary gland and hormonal activity pituitary gland and hormonal activity symphatoadrenal activity symphatoadrenal activity activity of defensive machanisms activity of defensive machanisms = Organism tries to prohibit the change in homeostasis (balance of body funtions). Training effect requires change in homeostasis = overload.

7 Effects of loading in body functions (stress theory): a) Stress (alarm) reaction + acute adaptation - stress hormones and neural reactions b) Adaptation period = chronic adaptation - occurs in recovery period - same loading causes smaller stress reaction later - adaptation is specific c) Exhaustion and overloading - sum of loading factors exeed adaptation ability of the body Loading/stress factors are among others physical loading, external conditions, psycho-social factors, primary needs, growth and development

8 Stimuli causing training effect (= chronic adaptation): 1) Mechanical factors - level of muscular force - stretch 2) Neuromuscular activity - EMG in muscles - neural impulses in the brain 3) Humoral factors - hormones - chemical compounds (lack of O2 for instance)

9 METHODS OF LOADING Mechanical ergometers - Belt brakes - Weigts - Air resistance Electrical brakes Magnetc brakes Ergometers Stepping Treadmill Simulators Natural movements

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25 MECHANICAL WORK AND POWER W= Work (Nm, J) W= Work (Nm, J) F = Force (N) F = Force (N) s = Distande (m) s = Distande (m) W = F x s P = Power (W) P = Power (W) t= Time (s) t= Time (s) P = W = F x s t t t t

26 CYCLE ERGOMETER For instance: F = 19.6 N (2 kg m/s 2 ) s = 6 m (distance of the wheel rim/pedal round) t = 60 s Pedaling frequency (60/min) P = W = F x s t t t t

27 PP-ERGOMETRITYÖ esim. F = 19.6 N (2 kg x 9.81 m/s 2 ) s = 6 m (distance of wheel rim/pedal round) t = 60 s Pedaling frequency (60/min) P = W = F x s = 19.6 N x 6m x 60 = 118 W t t60 s t t60 s

28 STEPPING For instance: F = N (78 kg x 9.81 m/s2) s = 0.5 m (bench height) t = 60 s And stepping frequency 18.5/min P = W = F x s = N x 0.5m x 18.5 = 118 W t t60 s t t60 s

29 TREADMILL P = W = F x s = N x 554 m = 118 W t t3600 s t t3600 s esim. F = N (78 kg x 9.81 m/s2) s = 554 m (= sin 5.3 x 6000 m) t = 3600 s (= 1 h) Treadmill speed 6 km/h And angle 5.3 And angle m 554 m sin 5.3 = 554 m = m

30 CONVERSIONS 1 watti = 6.1 kgm/min 1 watti = 1 joule/s 1 watti = hv/s 1 watti = cal 1 kcal = 4186 J

31 CALIBRATIONS To common measures To common measures - Lengths - Weights - Temperatures - Pressures - Different grades - Functions

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36 STANDARDIZING GAS VOLUMES STPD = gas volume under temperature of 0 C, pressure of 760 mm Hg and dry air. BTPS = gas volume in body temperature (37 C ), measured environmental pressure and saturated with water of 47 mm Hg partial pressure in temperature of 37 C

37 PERCIEVED EXERTION OF LOADING Ratio setting Ratio setting - Percentage relations (10, 20, …, 100%) - Multiplying factors (2, 3, …, 10krt; - MET) Ratio rating Ratio rating - Relations between stimuli Direct measurements Direct measurements - RPE-scale: 6-20 (Borg scale)

38 R = a + k (s – b) n, Borg 1970 R = Perceived loading b = Stimulus treshold value s = Stimulus strength a = Percieved resting load

39 Original RPE scale 6 7Very, very light 8 9Very light 10 11Fairly light 12 13Somewhat hard 14 15Hard 16 17Very hard 18 19Very, very hard Correlates to: - Heart rate - VO 2 - VCO 2 - VE - LA …. Cannot be used to compare perceived loadings of different individuals

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41 New RPE scale 0 Nothing at all 0.5 Very, very weak 1 Very weak 2 Weak 3 Moderate 4 Somewhat strong 5 Strong 6 7 Very strong Very, very strong Maximal - Better suited for intra- individual comparison - Desimaal numbers allowed - No upper limit


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