Presentation on theme: "Designing the Questionnaire. Ch 112 What is a Questionnaire? A questionnaire is the vehicle used to pose the questions that the researcher wants respondents."— Presentation transcript:
Designing the Questionnaire
Ch 112 What is a Questionnaire? A questionnaire is the vehicle used to pose the questions that the researcher wants respondents to answer.
Ch 113 Questionnaire Design Questionnaire design is a systematic process in which the researcher contemplates various question formats, considers a number of factors characterizing the survey at hand, ultimately words the various questions very carefully, and organizes the questionnaires layout.
Ch 114 The Functions of a Questionnaire Translates the research objectives into specific questions Standardizes those questions and the response categories Fosters cooperation and motivation Serves as permanent records of the research
Ch 115 The Functions of a Questionnaire Can speed up the process of data analysis Can serve as the basis for reliability and validity measures
Ch 116 Steps in the Questionnaire Development Process (Figure 11.1)
Ch 117 Developing Questions Question development is the practice of selecting appropriate response formats and wording questions so that they are understandable, unambiguous, and unbiased.
Ch 119 How wording affects answers Did you see… A broken headlight? The broken headlight? Which generates more agreement?
Ch 1110 Words to Avoid in Questionnaire Development All Always Any Anybody Ever Every Never
Ch 1111 Why Avoid These Words? These words: all, any, anybody, best, ever, every, never, etc. are all EXTREME ABSOLUTES… They place respondents in a situation where they must either fully agree or they must completely disagree with the extreme position in the question. –Do you always observe traffic signs? –Would you say all cats have four legs?
Ch 1112 Four Dos of Questionnaire Wording Question evaluation refers to scrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure the question is not biased and is worded such that respondents understand it and can respond to it with relative ease.
Ch 1113 Four Dos of Questionnaire Wording 1.The question should be focused on a single issue or topic. What type of hotel do you stay in on a trip? Pleasure or business trip? En route or final destination? 2.The question should be brief. 3.The question should be grammatically simple, if possible. 4.The question should be crystal clear.
Ch 1114 Four Do Nots of Questionnaire Wording 1.The question should not lead the respondent to a particular answer. Dont you see any problem with using credit cards for online purchases? 2.The question should not have loaded wording or phrasing. Use universal beliefs…Since our Founding Fathers gave us the right to bear arms…
Ch 1115 Four Do Nots of Questionnaire Wording 3.The question should not be double- barreled. 4.The question should not use words that overstate the condition…do not use dramatics. Would you buy sunglasses that protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolent rays that cause blindness?
Ch 1116 What is wrong with each question? How do you feel about Sears? When some gasoline or electric-powered product in your house breaks, do you call the Sears repair service? If the Sears repair service schedule was not convenient for you, would you consider or not consider calling a competing repair organization to fix the problem you have? How much do you think you would have to pay to have Sears fix something that needs to be repaired? Shouldnt concerned parents use car seats? Should car seats be used for our loved ones? Do good parents and responsible citizens use car seats? Do you believe infant car seats can protect riders from being maimed?
Ch 1117 Individual Question Wording Dos for all questions –Keep it focused on a single topic –Keep it brief –Keep it grammatically simple –Keep it crystal clear How do you feel about Sears? When some gasoline or electric-powered product in your house breaks, do you call the Sears repair service? If the Sears repair service schedule was not convenient for you, would you consider of not consider calling a competing repair organization to fix the problem you have? How much do you think you would have to pay to have Sears fix something that needs to be repaired? Please rate each aspect of Sears… When you need it, do you call Sears repair service? If you did not use Sears repair service, would you use another repair service? How much do you think Sears charges for a repair service call?
Ch 1118 Do you believe infant car sears can protect riders from being maimed? Individual Question Wording Do nots for all questionsDo nots for all questions –Dont ask leading questions –Dont ask loaded questions –Dont ask double-barreled questions –Dont use overstated questions Do you think childrens car seats are useful? Should car seats be used for our loved ones? Shouldnt concerned parents use car seats? Do good parents and responsible citizens use car seats? Do you think infant car seats are useful? Do you think car seats are useful for family members? Do you think parents who use car seats are responsible?
Ch 1119 Questionnaire Organization Questionnaire organization is the sequence of statements and questions that make up the questionnaire. It is important because the questionnaire appearance and ease of flow affect the quality of the information gathered.
Ch 1120 Questionnaire Organization The introduction is called a cover letter if the introduction is written to accompany a mail survey or online survey.
Ch 1121 Questionnaire Organization Five functions: –Identifies the surveyor/sponsor –Indicates the purpose of the survey –Explains how the respondent was selected –Requests for/provides incentive for participation –Determines if respondent is suitable
Ch 1122 Questionnaire Organization
Ch 1123 Incentives Incentives are offers to do something for the respondent to increase the probability that the respondent will participate in the survey.
Ch 1124 Incentives Incentives may be monetary or non- monetary. –Anonymity: respondent assured name not identified –Confidentiality: respondents name is known by the researcher but not divulged to a third party –Both are used as non-monetary incentives to increase participation
Ch 1125 Screening Questions Screening questions are used to ferret out respondents who do not meet research study qualifications. Research objectives should specify who should and should not be included in the research study.
Ch 1126 Screening Questions Example: If you were conducting research on factors consumers use in selecting a new car, wouldnt you only want to talk to persons who have recently selected a new car? If you were doing a study to determine the potential for an e-zine targeting college students, wouldnt you only want to talk to college students? Screening or qualifying questions are asked to ensure you are talking to your target population.
Ch 1127 Question Flow Question flow pertains to the sequencing of questions or blocks of questions. –Warm-up questions –Transitions –Skip questions –Classification and demographic questions
Ch 1128 Question Flow in a Questionnaire First Questions – Screens/Qualifiers –Have you shopped at Winn-Dixie in the last month? Immediately following screens - Warm-ups –How many major grocery shopping trips do you do in a month?
Ch 1129 Question Flow in a Questionnaire Prior to major sections - Transitions –Did you purchase any cereal on your last trip? –Do you use coupons for groceries? Middle of questionnaire - Complicated & Difficult-to-Answer –Rate each of the following aspects of Winn-Dixie on how satisfactory it is for you.
Ch 1130 Question Flow in a Questionnaire Last Section - Classification –What is the highest level of education you have earned?
Ch 1131 Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design Computer-assisted questionnaire design: software programs allow users to use computer technology to develop and disseminate questionnaires Advantages: –Easier –Faster –Friendlier –More flexibility
Ch 1135 Coding the Questionnaire Coding: use of numbers associated with question responses Numbers are preferred for two reasons: –Numbers are easier and faster to keystroke into a computer file. –Computer tabulation programs are more efficient when they process numbers.
Ch 1136 Performing the Pretest of the Questionnaire A pretest involves conducting a dry run of the survey on a small, representative set of respondents in order to reveal questionnaire errors before the survey is launched. It is important to pretest on respondents that are representative of the target population to be studied.