On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white person
This went against segregation, which was in place at that time. Consequently, she was incarcerated.
“Segregation” is the separation of two groups. Black people (African Americans) were not allowed to use the same water fountains, go to the same schools, or use the same seats as white people. Consequently-because of this To Incarcerate-to put in jail
In protest, people boycotted the bus system and walked everywhere.
To “boycott” means to not use something in protest. The owner of the business (in this case the bus company) loses a lot of money. This is a form of non-violent resistance.
Rosa was bailed out of prison, and, ultimately, the Supreme Court found Segregation to be unconstitutional.
The U.S. Constitution is the document on which all American law is based. “Unconstitutional” means that something goes against the Constitution It is the job of the Supreme Court to interpret the Constitution. “Bail” is a set amount of money required to live outside prison until your trial.
They called Rosa the “mother of the Civil Rights Movement”
Clara Shortridge Foltz was the first female attorney on the West Coast
An attorney is a lawyer, or someone who speaks for or against the defendant in court. The defendant is the person accused of a crime If the attorney is against this person, they are called a prosecutor. The “West Coast” refers to the West side of the US, like California.
Clara wrote an amendment to California law called the “Woman Lawyer’s Bill”. It passed on March 29, 1878
An amendment is something that changes a law that is already in place without replacing the whole thing. There are many amendments to the Constitution. Women were not allowed to be attorneys in California prior to (before) Clara Shortridge Folts
Gandhi was a spiritual leader in India during the Indian Independence Movement. Before this, he learned politics as a lawyer
At this time Britain was in control of India, and the Indians were treated poorly. Gandhi wanted the British to leave, but he did not want to hurt anybody. So, he practiced civil disobedience. “Civil disobedience” is refusing to obey the laws of a land, but not fighting back with violence. It includes working within the laws to hurt those in power in other ways and show them they are wrong.
Gandhi was known to fast for long periods of time. He said he would do so until either he died or the laws were changed
To “fast” is to intentionally deprive yourself of food for a cause or religious belief. Fasting is a part of many religions. Catholics fast during Lent. Muslims fast during Ramadan. “Breakfast”, as you may know, is what we call the first meal of the day. It is called this because you break your fasting. Get it?
Gandhi went to prison many times and endured much suffering. By the end of WWII, British let go of India
In 1948, Gandhi was assassinated by a political extremist.
We use the word “assassinate” instead of murder when we are talking about someone very important who has been killed. Generally, this is a politician or beloved leader. Someone who assassinates is an “assassin” instead of a “killer” or “murderer”. An extremist is someone who takes a political view to a dangerous level.