Presentation on theme: "THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -refers to a change from hand and home production to machine and factory
2 Early American Economy Agricultural (Agrarian economy)1800 – MOST AMERICANS WORKED ON FARMSItems not made at home were made by hand by highly trained craftsmen one at a timeEx. Tailor, Blacksmith, Cobbler
3 SAMUEL SLATERhe brought British textile technology to America & defied British law by building a machine that could spin cotton fibers into threaddesigned the first textile mills, went into business for himself and grew wealthy
4 This helped increase America’s growth Stages of Production:1st stage of products: divide the work among several people.2nd stage: build a factory where the people come together to work3rd stage: invent machines to do part of the labor for the workers.First industrial revolution was important for the inventions of spinning and weaving machines operated by water powerThis helped increase America’s growth
5 A CHANGING ECONOMYCause for entering the second Industrial Revolution was the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807 by Jefferson and the War of 1812.Effect: Economic Slow Down in U.S.Home manufacturing of textiles boomedWHY?????????
6 Industrialization a necessity…. The war made it obvious, America needed a better transportation system and more economic independence.Manufacturing began to expand.Industrialization in America involved three important developments.First, transportation was expanded.Second, electricity was effectively harnessed for use.Third, improvements were made to industrial processes such as improving the finishing process and speeding up production.The government helped protect American manufacturers by passing a protective tariff.
7 From Agriculture to Cities As industries and factories grew, people moved from farms to cities. (a shift from the majority of Americans living in Rural environments to an increase in Urban living and big cities)This led to other issues including overcrowding and disease.
10 In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which made the separation of cotton seeds from fiber much faster.The South increased its cotton supply helping to send raw cotton north to be used in the manufacture of cloth.
11 Within months he had created the cotton gin Within months he had created the cotton gin. A small gin could be hand-cranked; larger versions could be harnessed to a horse or driven by water power.
12 "One man and a horse will do more than fifty men with the old machines," wrote Whitney to his father "Tis generally said by those who know anything about it, that I shall make a fortune by it."Southern cotton field
14 Francis Cabot Lowell LOWELL’S EXPERIMENT Used River Power in 1813 to PowerCotton and ClothFrancis C. Lowell invested in this manufacture where he brought together spinning and weaving processes into one factory. This led to the development of the textile industry throughout New England.In 1846, Elias Howe created the sewing machine which revolutionized the manufacture of clothing. All of a sudden, clothing began to be made in factories as opposed to at home.
17 The Lowell Girls 80% of the workers were young women ages 11-25. Women endured difficult working conditions: sunrise to sunset for very low wages. They lived in boarding houses provided by the Lowell factory.
19 In 1798, the federal government awarded Eli Whitney a contract of $134,000 to produce and deliver 10,000 muskets.
20 Until then, every rifle had been made by hand from stock to barrel; but the parts of one gun did not fit any other gun, nor did anyone expect them to.
21 It was Whitney's idea to use machines that would make all the parts of his rifles so nearly identical that the machines parts could be interchangeable from one gun to another.
22 This system of manufacturing would permit an unskilled man to turn out a product that would be just as good as one made by a highly trained machinist.
23 Bessemer Steel Process The process of producing steel from iron.its invention it was of enormous industrial importance because it lowered the cost of production of steelsteel is then widely substituted for other substances which were inferior but previously cheaper.Henry Bessemer
24 Industrial Advances in Transportation The Cumberland Road, the first national road….the creation of the first steamboat, the Clermont. This was made possible by James Watt’s invention of the first reliable steam engine….The creation of the Erie Canal…..Railroads were of supreme importance to the increase in trade throughout the United States eventually replacing the highways and canals.. A transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah.
25 TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION A. ROADS AND TURNPIKESBefore 1800 Roads & RiversMost Important LinksBetween Farms, Villages, andCitiesDevelopment of Turnpikesa. Roads where travelers paid tollsb. Built of stone and gravel3. By 1850 the famous National Road had reached 600 miles!
26 RIVERS AND CANALSLess Expensive Than RoadsUpstream Travel Remained Slow& Expensive3. Rivers Had Limited Usefulnessa. Mostly north to southb. Freeze during winterErie Canal – Completed In 1825a. Connects Hudson River to Lake Erieb. Success spurred building of canalsc. By 1840 – 3,000 miles of canals
32 A NEW INDUSTRIALIZED NATION After 1850 Farmers Self-Sufficiency No Longer SeemedPractical……..New England = ManufacturingWest = GrainSouth = Cash CropsSpecialization Led To Conflicts and new thinking….
33 SECTIONALISMSectionalism- differing ways of life in different parts of the country (with loyalty to your section of the country)
34 Industrialization developments in Agriculture: Advances were made in agriculture too including better machines and cultivators. For example, Cyrus McCormick created the reaper which allowed quicker and cheaper harvesting of grain. John Deere created the first steel plow in 1837 helping speed up farming across the Midwest.
35 JOHN DEERE 1837 INVENTED THE IMPROVED STEEL PLOW THE STRONGER BLADE WAS LESS LIKELY TO Break WHEN HITTING A BIG ROCK
40 Industrial Advances in Communication: With the increased size of the United States, better communication networks became ultra important. In 1844, Samuel F. B. Morse created the telegraph and by 1860, this network ranged throughout the eastern coast to the Mississippi.
43 Inventors continued to work throughout the rest of the 19th and early 20th century on ways to life easier and productivity better.The foundations set throughout the mid-1800's set the stage for inventions such as the light bulb (Thomas Edison), telephone (Alexander Bell), and the automobile (Karl Benz). Further, Ford's creation of the assembly line which made manufacturing more efficient just helped form America into a modern industrialized nation. The impact of these and other inventions of the time cannot be underestimated.
44 Industrial Revolution Inventors PersonInventionDateJames WattFirst reliable Steam Engine1775Eli WhitneyCotton Gin, Interchangeable parts for muskets1793, 1798Robert FultonRegular Steamboat service on the Hudson River1807Samuel F. B. MorseTelegraph1836Elias HoweSewing Machine1844Isaac SingerImproves and markets Howe's Sewing Machine1851Cyrus FieldTransatlantic Cable1866Alexander Graham BellTelephone1876Thomas EdisonPhonograph, Incandescant Light Bulb1877, 1879Nikola TeslaInduction Electric Motor1888Rudolf DieselDiesel Engine1892Orville and Wilbur WrightFirst Airplane1903Henry FordModel T Ford, Assembly Line1908, 1913