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Nutritional Aspects: Feeding Pigs SAPPO Pig Production Course 2008 Jim Robinson.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutritional Aspects: Feeding Pigs SAPPO Pig Production Course 2008 Jim Robinson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutritional Aspects: Feeding Pigs SAPPO Pig Production Course 2008 Jim Robinson

2 FEEDING PIGS PRINCIPLES: Pigs are omnivorous Pigs are meant to eat like pigs Pigs reward good feeding Different pigs eat different feed and are measured differently For instance: Genetics, housing, health and management vary widely; so do our expectations.

3 FEEDING PIGS Feed constituents and sources: Proteins- amino acids are required for body building- muscle, bones, organs, skin. Sources: - animal products; fish meal, meat & bone meal, - left overs (e.g. swill) - plants and grains-lower protein levels, short of essential aminos (lysine, methionine etc) - Oil cake- remainder of grains after oil is extracted

4 FEEDING PIGS Energy food: - Carbohydrates, required for body functions and muscle activity; excess energy is converted to fat Sources: Grains eg, maize, wheat, barley, sorghum- digestibility varies. Vegetables: pumpkins,carrots etc Oils and fats- very rich in energy

5 FEEDING PIGS Fibre: Vegetable residues- aid digestion and peristalsis Sources: bran,hominy chop, lucerne Vitamins & minerals: Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, trace elements. Full range of vitamins- ADEK (fat sol) B,C, Folic acid…….. (water sol) Water: Clean water essential and sometimes neglected

6 PIG FEEDING PIG RATIONS High performing commercial pigs get well formulated rations Creep Weaner Grower Finisher Lactating sow Sow and boar The younger the pig the greater the requirement for complete proteins, digestible carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals (See table on page 65)

7 FEEDING PIGS TERMS & MEASUREMENTS ad lib- as much as they want Balanced ration : compound feed prepared according to a scientific formula Digestible energy : calculated from knowledge of feed & allows for undigested particles FCR: Feed conversion ratio- The total kilograms of feed required to produce 1 kg of meat. Herd FCR : Total feed to the whole herd to produce 1 kg of meat. Note: Feed to gain (USA) or live mass FCR refer to live pigs not meat

8 FEEDING PIGS HOW MUCH AND WHEN Times per dayIn commercial herds with balanced rations 2Sows (dry ie pregnant) & boars – 2kg/day vary by conditions and season 3 or 4Lactating sows: 2-3 kg/day for 2 days then ad lib – 2kg + 0.4 kg per suckler as minimum 2 X 20 minutes Sucklers: Mothers milk then creep ration for last 10 days before weaning Ad libWeaners – 250g/day for 2 days, then ad lib Ad libGrowers – ad lib (70% of all feed used here) Ad libAll pigs, water of good quality

9 FEEDING PIGS NON COMMERCIAL PIGS Either: Mix your own from tables and own sources Or: Use balanced rations for young pigs esp creep and weaner and cheaper feeds for growers and adults. Lactating sows need a balanced ration Or: Feed swill of good quality

10 FEEDING PIGS SWILL Bad term because it has a bad reputation Rather: Food by-products e.g: Stale bread, cooked meal from industry canteens Dated animal cubes (Horse, dog…) Reject of access vegetables Spoilt milk, whey, brewery grain…. Bad swill is dangerous and unwholesome! Restaurant and hospital kitchen waste Any feed containing meat of any animal Rotten vegetables Stinking water

11 FEEDING PIGS NB: NOTHING that comes from harbours or airports may be fed! Law requires all swill containing raw animal product to be boiled for 30 minutes

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