1 Monday 4/13/2015 Virus & Bacteria Agenda: Activity: Brain Pop Notes: Discovery of VirusesActivity: Lytic vs. Lysogenic VideoHomework:Viral Reproduction Worksheet due Tuesday/Wednesday 4/14- 4/15/2015 for 40 Points
2 Week ScheduleTuesday 4/14/2015 is a 1,3,5 Block day with lunch at 10:30 ON CAMPUSWednesday 4/15/2015 is a 2,4,6 Block day with lunch at 10:30 ON CAMPUSThursday and Friday are block days (1,3,5 and 2,4,6 Friday
3 Discovery of VirusesAt the end of the 19th century, scientists began researching the cause of Tobacco Mosaic Disease: stunts the growth of tobacco plants.Scientists filtered bacteria from the sap of infected tobacco plants.FINDING: Filtered sap could still cause uninfected plants to become infected.CONCLUSION: The pathogen is smaller than a bacterium; the pathogen was called a virus- Latin word meaning “poison.”
4 Virus TerminologyVirus: Segments of nucleic acids held in a protein coat. Are NOT cells; not living, do not grow, no metabolism.Pathogen: agents that cause disease(s)Bacteriophage: Viruses that infect bacteria, complex structure.4. Capsid: Protein coat of a virus; contains DNA or RNA, NOT BOTH!5. Envelope (Membrane): Surrounds the capsid, allows the virus to enter the cell. Made up of proteins, lipids and glycoproteins. Glycoproteins: proteins that attach carbohydrate molecules.
6 Are Viruses alive?All living things are made up of cells; cells can grow and reproduce; the smallest organism with “cell-like” properties are prokaryotes.Viruses are NOT cells, viruses are smaller than prokaryotes. Viruses are pathogens; they CAUSE disease.How Virus Replicates: Infect cell(s), use the cell to make more viruses.Viruses need cells because they do not have the properties needed to produce life. (Don’t grow, metabolize and no homeostasis)
7 Structure of Viruses1. Filaments- Long rods. Example: Ebola virus 2. Spherical- Studded with receptors, allowing the virus to enter the cell. Example: Influenza virus 3. Helical- Rod-like in appearance with capsid proteins winding around the core in a spiral. 4. Polyhedral- Has MANY sides; the capsid of most polyhedral viruses have 20 triangular faces & 12 corners.
8 Viral ReproductionThere are 2 pathways a virus can take in order to replicate itself; Lytic Cycle or Lysogenic Cycle1. Lytic CycleStep 1: Virus attaches to cell, injecting its DNAStep 2: Viral genes enters the cellStep 3: Host cell replicates viral genes & viral proteins (A.K.A. Capsid Proteins)Step 4: Proteins assemble to form a complete virusStep 5: Host cell bursts open, releasing a NEW virus
10 2. Lysogenic CycleSome viruses stay inside a cell, spreading its virus through a cells natural reproductionLysogenic cycle allows the viral genes to replicate without destroying the host cell. In some lysogenic viruses, environmental changes can cause the lysogenic cycle to begin.A virus in the lysogenic cycle can switch to the lytic cycleExample: Cold sore virus; virus hides in facial nerves. When body conditions are favorable (ie. stress), the virus will cause tissue damage resulting in a cold sore or fever blister
11 Lysogenic CycleStep 1: Viral gene is inserted into host chromosome Step 2: Viral genes (DNA or RNA) combines with host DNA Step 3: Host cell divides normally, resulting in 2 new cells, each containing viral DNA. *NO damage to the host cell* * The new cells, containing viral genes, can switch to the Lytic Cycle to create MORE viruses*