Presentation on theme: "Physical Geography The Big Idea"— Presentation transcript:
1 Physical Geography The Big Idea The physical geography of the Indian Subcontinent features unique physical features and a variety of climates and resources.Main IdeasTowering mountains, large rivers, and broad plains are the key physical features of the Indian Subcontinent.The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and resources.
2 Main Idea 1: Towering mountains, large rivers, and broad plains are the key physical features of the Indian Subcontinent.A subcontinent is a large landmass that is smaller than a continent.The Indian Subcontinent is a triangular wedge of land that juts out from the southernmost portion of Asia.The Indian Subcontinent is also called South Asia.The Indian Subcontinent is made up of seven countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.The Indian Subcontinent is one of the most distinctive geographic regions in the world.
3 Key Physical Features Mountains Rivers and Plains Other Features Hindu Kush mountains divide the subcontinent from Central Asia.The Eastern and Western Ghats separate India’s east and west coasts from the country’s interior.The Himalayas run along the northern border and are home to the world’s highest mountains.Rivers and PlainsThe rivers flood each year, leaving fertile plains.India’s most important river is the Ganges.A delta is a landform at the mouth of a river.The Ganges Plain is India’s farming heartland.The Indus River creates a fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley.Other FeaturesThe Deccan is a large, hilly plateau located to the south of the Ganges Plain.The Thar, or Great Indian Desert, is made up of rolling sand dunes.The Tarai in southern Nepal has fertile farmland and tropical jungles.
4 Main Idea 2: The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and resources. The Indian Subcontinent has four climate regions: the highland climate, the subtropical climate, the tropical climate, and the desert or steppe climate.Monsoons have a huge influence on the weather and climates in the subcontinent.Agricultural and mineral resources are plentiful.
5 Climate Regions Highland climate Humid subtropical climate HimalayasBrings cool temperatures to much of Nepal and BhutanHumid subtropical climatePlains south of the HimalayasHot, humid summers with plenty of rainfallTropical climateCovers much of the subcontinentTropical savanna in central India and Sri LankaHumid tropical climate in southwest India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and BangladeshDesert and steppe climateThroughout southern and western India and most of PakistanDry
6 MonsoonsMonsoons are seasonal winds that bring either moist or dry air to an area.Summer monsoons bring heavy rains and fertile growing conditions to many places on the Indian Subcontinent.In the winter, the monsoons change direction. The winter monsoons bring dry air from the north, and little rain falls during this time of year.
7 Natural Resources Agricultural Resources Fertile soil Timber Livestock Mineral ResourcesIron ore – IndiaCoal – IndiaNatural gas reserves – PakistanGemstones – Sri Lanka
8 History and Culture of India The Big IdeaAncient civilizations and powerful empires have shaped the history and culture of India.Main IdeasAdvanced civilizations and powerful empires shaped the early history of India.Powerful empires controlled India for hundreds of years.Independence from Great Britain led to the division of India into several countries.Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture.
9 Main Idea 1: Advanced civilizations and powerful empires shaped the early history of India. Ancient CivilizationsAround 2300 BC the Harappan civilization began in the Indus River Valley.The Ayrans, invaders from Central Asia, entered India around 1500 BC.Aryan culture helped shape the language, religion, and caste system of India.Early EmpiresBy 223 BC the Mauryan Empire controled most of the Indian Subcontinent.Emperor Asoka helped spread Buddhism in India.Indian trade and culture flourished during the Gupta Empire.
10 Main Idea 2: Powerful empires controlled India for hundreds of years. The Mughal EmpireBabur establisheed the Mughal Empire in northern India in 1526Indian trade, culture, and religion thrived under the rule of Akbar the Great.By 1700 the Mughal Empire ruled almost all of the Indian Subcontinent.The British EmpireThe British East India Company established trade in India in the early 1600s.By the mid-1800s the company controlled more than half of the Indian Subcontinent.India became a British colony.Indian troops revolted against the East India Company.The British government took direct control of India in 1858.India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947.
11 Main Idea 3: Independence from Great Britain led to the division of India into several countries. Indians began to question British rule and created the Indian National Congress.Mohandas Gandhi was the most important leader of the Indian independence movement.Great Britain finally agreed to make India independent, but they feared that a civil war would erupt between India’s Hindu and Muslim communities.To avoid civil war, the British government agreed to the partition, or division, of India into two separate countries: India and Pakistan.Sri Lanka and Maldives gained their independence from Great Britain.In 1971 East Pakistan broke away to form the country of Bangladesh.
12 Main Idea 4: Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture. India is the birthplace of several major religions, including Hinduism and Buddhism.ReligionOne of the world’s oldest religionsHinduism—the dominant religion of IndiaBelieve everything in the universe is part of a single spirit called BrahmanBelieve one’s ultimate goal is to reunite one’s soul with BrahmanBelieve in reincarnationHinduismBegan in northern India in the late 500s BCBuddhism—a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the BuddhaBelieve people can rise above their desire for material goods and reach nirvanaNirvana is a state of perfect peace.Buddhism
13 The Caste SystemThe caste system divided Indian society into groups based on a person’s birth or occupation.The caste system features four main classes, originally based on occupations.Below the four main castes are the Dalits, members of India’s lowest class.Many rules guided interaction between the classes.
14 India Today The Big Idea India today features a blend of modern and traditional culture, a rapidly growing population, and a developing economy.Main IdeasDaily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion.Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic development.
15 Main Idea 1: Daily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion. Two largest cities—Mumbai (Bombay) and Kolkata (Calcutta)Bangalore and Mumbai—universities, research centers, and high-tech businessesMost people struggle to earn a living in the cities.VillagesMost Indians live in rural areas.Most villagers work as farmers and live with an extended family.Paved roads and electricity have only recently reached many Indian villages.ReligionPlays a key role in Indian daily lifeMost practice Hinduism.Many follow other religions (Islam, Buddhism, etc.).Millions practice Sikhism and Jainism.Religious celebrations are important.
16 Main Idea 2: Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic development.PopulationIndia is the world’s second most populous country.India’s huge population places a strain on India’s environment and resources.Urbanization is taking place. Urbanization is the increase in the percentage of people who live in cities.
17 Government and the Economy India is the world’s largest democracy.India is one of the strongest nations in Asia.One of India’s largest industries is its moviemaking industry—called Bollywood.Although India is one of the world’s top five industrial countries, millions of Indians live in poverty.
18 Challenges for India 1. Poverty 2. A growing population India’s government instituted a reform called the greenrevolution, a program that encouraged farmers to adoptmodern agricultural methods.The government had succeeded in attracting many high-tech businesses to India.2. A growing population3. Relationship with Pakistan
19 India’s Neighbors The Big Idea Despite cultural differences, the countries that border India share similar challenges.Main IdeasMany different ethnic groups and religions influence the culture of India’s neighbors.Rapid population growth, ethnic conflicts, and environmental threats are major challenges to the region today.
20 Main Idea 1: Many different ethnic groups and religions influence the culture of India’s neighbors. Five countries share the subcontinent with India: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka.These countries have significantly different cultures.The people of these countries come from many different ethnic groups.A variety of religions exist on the Indian Subcontinent.
21 People and Religions of the Indian Subcontinent The Indian Subcontinent is home to many different ethnic groups.The Sherpas, an ethnic group from the mountains of Nepal, often serve as guides through the Himalayas.Bhutan’s largest ethnic group originally came from Tibet.Many of Sri Lanka’s Tamil people came from India to work the country’s huge plantations.ReligionsPakistan: most practice Islam; small portions of the population follow Hinduism, Christianity, and tribal religions.Bangladesh: most practice Islam; small portions of the population follow Hinduism, Christianity, and tribal religions.Nepal: the dominant religion is Hinduism, although Buddhism is practiced in some parts of the country.Bhutan: the dominant religion is Buddhism.Sri Lanka: the dominant religion is Buddhism.
22 Major Challenges for Pakistan Main Idea 2: Rapid population growth, ethnic conflicts, and environmental threats are major challenges to the region today.Major Challenges for PakistanLack of government stabilityRapid population growthTroubled relationship with India, especially over the territory of KashmirTerrorists within Pakistan’s borders
23 Major Challenges for Bangladesh Over populationOne of the world’s most densely populated countriesDhaka (capital and largest city) – over 11.5 million peopleFlooding
24 Major Challenges for Nepal Rapid population growthPopulation has more than doubled in the last 30 years.Kathmandu (capital and largest city) – over-crowded and impoverishedOne of the world’s least-developed nationsDeforestationControlling tourism
25 Major Challenges for Sri Lanka Conflict between Sri Lanka’s two largest ethnic groups: the Tamil and the SinhaleseTsunami in 2004Killed thousands of Sri LankansCrippled Sri Lanka’s fishing and agricultural industries
26 Bhutan Today Small mountain kingdom in the Himalayas Most people earn a living as farmers.Tourism is an important industry.Government limits the number of visitors in order to protect the environment and Bhutan’s way of life.