Presentation on theme: "Background: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict What is at the core of the ongoing conflict between the Arabs and Israelis? Which areas of land are in dispute?"— Presentation transcript:
Background: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict What is at the core of the ongoing conflict between the Arabs and Israelis? Which areas of land are in dispute?
Before WWI The area known today as Palestine and Israel were part of the Ottoman Empire. European nations were interested in gaining control of the territory because: The water routes around this area provided easy access to places like Russia, the Mediterranean Sea, and natural resources all over the Middle East and Central Asia. The Suez Canal, to the west of Palestine, was coveted by all the major powers.
After WWI During World War I, the Middle East was promised to many different groups of people in exchange for military help during WWI (Arab rulers, average Arab people, Jewish people, and France and Great Britain). After the war, it was divided into Mandates (basically colonies) controlled by France and Great Britain Jewish people began moving from homes around the world to relocate in Palestine. They did this to escape persecution. They dreamed of one day having a national homeland. People who wanted a Jewish homeland were called Zionists.
After WWII After World War II and the Holocaust, many people agreed that Jewish people needed a national homeland. The United Nations decided to give part of Palestine to Jewish people, and part to Arab Muslims.
The Palestinians Palestinians did not have any say when the United Nations gave part of the land on which they lived to Jewish people (they were a mandate, not a nation, so they didn’t have representation in the United Nations) All surrounding Arab nations opposed the formation of Israel. The UN thought it would be okay, because they gave part of the land in the area to the Palestinians. Many Palestinians were not happy!
1949 Arab-Israeli War Other Arab nations agreed with the Palestinians. They went to war with Israel to try and get the land back. Instead, Israel, who had military help from powerful nations like France, was able to beat the Arab coalition and gain the land that was supposed to be for Palestinians. After the war, over 1 million Palestinian refugees were created after their land was taken. They still live in UN monitored refugee camps in areas like the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, and Lebanon.
1967 Six Day War Israel felt threatened by its neighboring countries. They decided to strike. They were able to gain a large amount of territory, including the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza strip from Egypt and the Golan Heights from Syria. Why might the Peninsula and the Heights be important?
The PLO In 1969 Yasser Arafat became the leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. It is an organization of Palestinians who want to have a Palestinian nation-state.
1973 Yom Kippur War Arab nations struck first to try and regain territory lost in the 6 Day War. At first, they push the Israelis back. A massive airlift of US arms to Israel tips the balance. Arab oil states proclaim an embargo against all countries helping Israel. The US oil crisis begins.
The Intifada (“Shaking Off”) In 1987, Palestinians living in occupied territories began a revolt against the Israelis known as the Intifada. Their goal was to force Israel to give them their own national state using violence or any other means.
Populations Today Area Israelis Palestinians Israel less Jerusalem 3,741,700 762,000 Israel including Jerusalem 4,168,700921,000 West Bank 97,0001,150,000 Gaza 3,600796,000 Source: Israeli and US Governments
Peace Efforts 1978 Camp David Accords – Israel and Egypt meet in the USA. Egypt regains the Sinai Peninsula. 1978 Camp David Accords – Israel and Egypt meet in the USA. Egypt regains the Sinai Peninsula. Recently, Israel has pulled its military and civilians settlers out of both Gaza and the West Bank in an effort to curb violence. Recently, Israel has pulled its military and civilians settlers out of both Gaza and the West Bank in an effort to curb violence. A “TWO STATE SOLUTION” is being pushed by the USA and others. A “TWO STATE SOLUTION” is being pushed by the USA and others.