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Israel & The Middle East

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Presentation on theme: "Israel & The Middle East"— Presentation transcript:

1 Israel & The Middle East

2 The Creation of Israel Balfour Declaration (1917)
British document that promised a Jewish homeland (Zionists) in British-controlled Palestine. This became problematic as large numbers of Jewish settlers (roughly ) which flooded into this area would clash with the Arabic population already living there.

3 The Arab Rebellion ( ) British began discussing the partitioning of Palestine into two separate sections. To promote the interests of the Arab peoples the League of Arab States was created. The Arabs revolted against the British and murdered innocent Jews. British scared of continued violence decided to stop immigration. Zionists felt betrayed but their hands were tied (Hitler or Britain).

4 The Creation of Israel In May of 1948, the UN partioned Palestine and created the Jewish state of Israel. Jerusalem was to remain a UN mandate. Zionists agreed with partition the Arabs did not.

5 Arab-Israeli War (1948) The Arab states surrounding Israel attack it.
Israelis defeat the Arabs and significantly increase their territory. Many Palestinians ( ) are displaced and become refugees living in camps surrounding Israel.

6 The PLO The Palestinian Liberation Organization was formed in the 1960’s with the objective of destroying Israel and returning its lands to the Palestinian people. Leader was Yasser Arafat (1969)

7 Suez Crisis (1956) In 1952 Gamul Abdel Nasser, an Arab nationalist deposes the King of Egypt and becomes president.

8 Suez Crisis (1956) In 1956, Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal which has been run by the British. The British and French make a secret plan with Israel to attack Egypt.

9 Suez Crisis (1956) In October of 1956 the Israelis invade the Sinai Peninsula. British and French forces arrive to “intervene” but are really there to re-establish European control of the canal. The U.S. brings the matter to the UN, demanding the withdrawal of Anglo-French forces.

10 Suez Crisis (1956) The Anglo-French forces withdraw and the Israelis pulled their forces back. A UN peacekeeping force is established to maintain a presence in this region.

11 The Six Day War (1967) Nasser announces that he is closing the Suez Canal to shipping from any nation supporting Israel. Egypt and other Arab nations begin to mobilize their armies threatening Israel.

12 The Six-Day War (1967) Seeing the element of surprise as the best way to ensure victory against so many enemies Israel launches a preemptive attack that destroys the Egyptian airforce.


14 The Yom Kippur War (1973) With the Israelis unwilling to negotiate the return of Arab territory, Egypt and Syria stage a surprise attack on Israel during the Jewish Yom Kippur holiday.

15 The Yom Kippur War (1973) This time it is the Israelis caught off guard and they suffer heavy losses during initial phase of war. The U.S., Israel’s ally, airlifts war material to the Israelis while the Soviets do the same for the Egyptians.

16 The Yom Kippur War (1973) The Israelis eventually turn the tables on their attackers and threaten the Syrian capital, Damascus. U.S. pressure reins the Israelis in and eventually the UN brokers a ceasefire.

17 Energy Crisis (1973) The Arabs, frustrated by the loss of the Yom Kippur War seek to punish Israeli’s allies. OPEC (The Organization of Oil Exporting Countries) declares an oil embargo on the nations of the West.

18 Energy Crisis (1973) Oil shortages wreak havoc with industrialized economies and force gas rationing in the U.S. The embargo will only last for 5 months but the Arab states now become keenly aware of the power of oil.

19 Egypt Seeks Peace (1977) Recognizing that Israel might be willing to trade occupied territory for peace, Egyptian president, Anwar Sadat travels to Israel to the Israeli parliament to meet Menachem Begin the Isreali P.M..

20 Egypt Seeks Peace (1977) The U.S. helps negotiate peace between the two nations. In exchange for returning its territory, Egypt recognizes Israel’s right to exist. (Camp David Agreement, 1978)

21 The Violence continues…
March 1978 Israel invaded southern Lebanon to destroy PLO bases. Israel moved to increase Jewish settlement in the occupied territories. In 1987 more clashes occur between Palestinians and Israelis. (Intifadah) 1988 Arafat & Rabin (new Israeli PM) agreed to recognize each other. Oslo Accord (1991)

22 Iran-Iraq War ( ) Seeking control of strategic oil fields and waterway (Shatt-al-Arab) and threatened by the fundamentalist Shi’a government in Iran, Saddam Hussein orders Iraqi forces to attack Iran.

23 Iran-Iraq War ( ) Expecting a quick victory, Iraq instead gets bogged down in a long and bloody war. The war ends in a stalemate with Iranian oil infrastructure badly damaged and Iraq deeply in debt. In 1988 the UN calls for a ceasefire and a 350 member force sent in to monitor the truce.

24 The Gulf War ( ) Acting to settle a long standing border dispute with Kuwait, Saddam Hussein orders Iraq’s army to invade the tiny nation of Kuwait. The successful invasion means Iraq now poses a threat to Saudi Arabia.

25 The Gulf War ( ) Seeing a threat to strategic oil supplies the UN Security Council passes a series of resolutions to force Iraq to leave Kuwait. Finally the authorize the use of force. (Operation Desert Storm)

26 The Gulf War (1990-1991) UN aircraft begin attacking on Jan. 15th.
When ground forces eventually invade on Feb. 24th, they defeat the Iraqis in three days. To avoid invasion by UN forces, Iraq agrees to all UN conditions.

27 Operation Iraqi Freedom
The United States and Britain supplied 98% of the invading forces. Prior to the invasion, the United States' official position was that Iraq illegally possessed "weapons of mass destruction" in violation of UN Security Council Resolution 1441 and had to be disarmed by force. The Bush administration failed to get a U.N. endorsement for war against Iraq on March 17, 2003 and began the invasion on March 20, 2003, which is seen by many as a violation of international law, breaking the UN Charter The Iraqi Military was defeated, and Baghdad fell on April 9, On May 1, 2003, U.S. President George W. Bush declared the end of major combat operations, terminating the Ba'ath Party's rule and removing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. (Saddam Hussein captured on December 13, 2003).

28 Operation Iraqi Freedom
Extensive inspections after Iraq's invasion failed to find substantial proof of weapons of mass destruction. There has been significant evidence found of Iraqi cease-fire violations on several other points including the discovery of plans and other documentation useful to the later restarting of WMD programs. Post-invasion Iraq has experienced violence from warring sects and an Iraqi insurgency. Numerous terrorist groups have become active in the area. Elections were held in January Currently the military situation is in transition to Iraqi military leadership in counterinsurgency.

29 The Middle East Today Though the superpowers are no longer competing for influence in the Middle East, it remains a volatile and strategically important area. The U.S. continues to attempt to balance support for Israel with the need to maintain a good relationship with oil-rich Arab states. The 911 attacks, Palestinian militancy, Israeli unwillingness to part with occupied land, Islamic fundamentalism and the U.S. invasion of Iraq all serve to make that balancing act much more difficult.

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