Presentation on theme: "Dynamic Modeling and Validation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dynamic Modeling and Validation Wind Power PlantDynamic Modeling and ValidationWECC Model Validation Working Group Denver, Colorado May 18-19, 2009Eduard MuljadiNational Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, COAbraham EllisSandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM
3 Background (Dynamic Model of a Wind Power Plant) WTGwind turbine generatornewlinelossofResizingShortCircuitDynamic models are needed to study the dynamic behavior of power system. Users include system planners and operators, generation developers, equipment manufacturers, researchers, and consultants.Wind Power Plant (WPP) models are needed to study the impact of proposed or existing wind power plants on power system and vice versa (i.e. to keep voltage and frequency within acceptable limits).Models need to reproduce WPP behavior during transient events such as faults/clear events, generation/load tripping, etc.
4 Differences between Wind Power Plant and Conventional Power Plant Single Large (40MW to 1000MW+) generatorPrime mover: Steam, Combustion Engine – non-renewable fuelControllability: adjustable up to max limit and down to min limit.Located where convenient for fuel and transmission access.Generator: Synchronous GeneratorFixed speed – no slip: Flux is controlled via exciter winding. Flux and rotor rotate synchronously.Wind Power PlantMany (hundreds) of wind turbines (1MW - 5MW each)Prime mover: wind turbine - windControllability: curtailment, ramp rate limit, output limitLocated at wind resource, it may be far from the load center.Generator: Four different types (fixed speed, variable slip, variable speed, full converter)Type 3 & 4: variable speed with flux oriented controller (FOC) via power converter. Rotor does not have to rotate synchronously.
5 Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) Topologies Four basic types, based on the WTG technology:Type 1 – Fixed-speed, conventional induction generatorsVariable Slip WTGType 2 – Induction generators with variable rotor resistanceVariable Speed WTGsType 3 – Doubly-fed asynchronous generators with rotor-side converterType 4 – Asynchronous generators with full converter interface
6 Partial List of Different Types of Wind Turbines Reference: K. Clark, 2008 IEEE PES GM– Tutorial on Wind Generation Modeling and Controls – DPWPGWG6
7 WPP Equivalent Representation Power Flow Representation of WPP in WECCWECC developed and adopted guidelines for WPP representationBased on single-machine representationAccess to guidelines: -> Committees -> MVWG -> WGMGMajor components of WPP Equivalent Representation:• Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) Equivalent and power factor correction (PFC) caps• Pad-mounted Transformer Equivalent• Collector System Equivalent branch.WPad-mounted Transformer EquivalentWind Turbine Generator EquivalentPF CorrectionShunt CapacitorsCollector System EquivalentInterconnection Transmission Line-Plant-level Reactive CompensationPOI or Connection to the Transmission SystemStation Transformer(s)
8 Pad-mounted Transformer Equivalent #1 Multiple Turbine RepresentationIn some cases, multiple turbine representation may be appropriate, for example:• To represent groups of turbines from different types or manufacturers• To represent a group of turbines connected to a long line within the wind plant• To represent a group turbines with different control algorithms.WPad-mounted Transformer Equivalent #1WTG Equivalent #1 of Type 3 Voltage controlledCollector System Equivalent #1 considered to be a long/weak line feeder21 MWStation Transformer(s)Interconnection Transmission LineWPad-mounted Transformer Equivalent #2WTG Equivalent #2 Type 1PF CorrectionShunt Capacitors34 MWCollector System Equivalent #2POI or Connection to the Transmission SystemTotalOutput100 MWWPad-mounted Transformer Equivalent #3WTG Equivalent #3 of Type 3 PF=145 MWCollector System Equivalent #3
9 Equivalent Collector System Depends on feeder type (OH/UG) and WPP sizeZeq and Beq, can be computed from WPP conductor schedule, if availableFor radial feeders with N WTGs and I branches:Where ni is the number of WTGs connected upstream of the i-th branchThis can be implemented easily on a spreadsheet9
10 Equivalent Collector System Example with N=18 and I=21:10
11 Equivalent Collector System Sample project dataSome segments are overhead1111
12 Equivalent Pad-Mounted Xfmrs Assume identical ZT are effectively in parallelFor N identical pad-mounted transformers, each with impedance ZT , the equivalent impedance ZTeq is:For 1.5 MVA to 3 MVA, 600V/34.5kV: ZT = 6% on transformer MVA base; adjustable (fixed) tapson pad-mounted transformer MVA baseORon N × pad-mounted transformer MVA base12
13 Reactive Power Limits Type 1 and Type 2 WTGs (induction machines) At full output and nominal voltage, PF ~ 0.9 under-excited => Qmin = Qmax = Qgen = -½ PratedMSCs at WTG terminals maintain PF near unity at nominal voltage => Qcap = ½ PratedExample:100 MW WPP, Type 1 WTGPgen = Prated = 100 MWQmin = Qmax = Qgen = -50 Mvar~Qcap = 50 Mvar
14 Reactive Power Limits Type 3 and Type 4 WTGs Line-side converter allows for PF adjustment at WTG terminals; MSCs at WTG terminals are not neededIf WTG PF is fixed, Qmin = Qmax = Pgen × tan(cos-1(PF))If WTG PF range is used for steady-state voltage control, set Qmin and Qmax according to PF range and PgenWTG PF adjusted by plant-level controller. Patents may apply.Example:100 MW WPP, Type 3,+/-0.95 reactive range, controlling POI voltagePgen = Prated = 100 MWQmin = -33 Mvar; Qmax = 33 MvarQgen depends on POI voltage~POI
16 Power System Dynamic Time Scales Source: Dynamic Simulation ApplicationsUsing PSLF – Short Course Note – GE Energy
17 Example of Wind Turbine Model Objective of the model? (fault transient or long term dynamic, mechanical or electrical characteristics, power system transient or power quality of the wind power plant).• Major components (wind turbine type 1, 2, 3, 4, include aerodynamic or use simplified one, positive sequence or 3 phase representation, use complete generator and power electronics or simplified power conversion, include system protection?).For each component block, the equations governing the function of the block can be derived (assumptions may be made to simplify power converter, aerodynamic, saturation level, nonlinear circuits).Control algorithm will be formulated according to the wind turbine system to be modeled (WTG type 1 is different from WTG type 4 etc, different manufacturers may have unique algorithms).Choose the method of calculation and/or the software to be used (PSLF, PSSE for positive sequence representation, PSCAD, PSIM, EMTP if detail of the power electronics switching to be emphasized, MATLAB/Simulink, Mathcad may be considered for different aspects of simulation).
18 WECC Generic Models Generic model development in PSSE/PSLF Complete suite of prototype models implementedType 3 model formally approved for use in WECC; others pendingCurrent focusModel validation & refinement (e.g., freq. response)Identification of generic model parameters for different manufacturers (at NREL)PSLFPSSEThe WECC WGMG work has produced a set of prototype generic models in PSSE and PSLF. They are not perfect, but they are better than the alternative (no models that are publicly accessible). Since the models are open source and supported by program vendors, the model refinement process can proceed.18
19 WECC Generic Models Type 2 WTG Type 1 WTG Simplification in key areas. For example, pseudo-governor approach can emulate a wide range of approaches for turbine control. This simplification was possible by making sensible assumptions such as wind speed is constant during a dynamic simulation (20 seconds). However, models correctly initialize to any specified wind speed and power level.19
20 WECC Generic Models Type 3 WTG Type 4 WTG The converter dominates dynamics in both Type 3 and Type 3 WTGs. Type 4 model does not require representation of the turbine. The models are good for most of today’s control approaches, but do not yet have advanced features such as inertial response. They will be refined. How to obtain data to represent a particular manufacturer is still an issue. We are working on that.20
21 Method of WTG Model Validation Comparison against field test measurementPrepare the simulation carefully (i.e. the correct information must be used): type of WTG, collector system impedance, transformers, power system network, input parameters to dynamic models, control flags settings set-up, reactive power compensation at the turbine level or at the plant level.Initialize the simulation based on pre-fault condition (check v, i, p, q, f, if available).Recreate the nature of the faults if possible, otherwise use the recorded data to drive the simulation and compare the measured output to the simulated output (pre-fault, during the fault, post-fault).Represent the events for the duration of observation (any changes in wind, how many turbine were taken offline due to the fault?).Prepare the data measured to match the designed frequency range of the software used.Field data is expensive to monitor, public domain data is limited, difficult to get, and quality of data needs to be scrutinizedAnticipate errors in the measurement and make the necessary correctionThe location of simulation should be measured at the corresponding monitored data.
22 Example of Dynamic Model Simulation versus Field Data (Type 3) Collector System EquivalentPad-mounted Transformer EquivalentInterconnection Transmission LineStation Transformer(s)POI or Connection to the Transmission SystemW91% WTGs stays “on” after the fault.Two Turbine RepresentationW9% WTGs were dropped of line during the fault.Interconnection Transmission LinePOI or Connection to the Transmission SystemStation Transformer(s)136 WTGs were represented9% WTGs were dropped of line during the fault.Complete Representation (136 turbines)22
23 Example of Dynamic Model Simulation versus Field Data (Type 3) WWind TurbineGeneratorEquivalentInputV and fA CBSystem GeneratorCompare P&Q measured to P&Q simulatedRegulated Bus23
24 Method of WTG Model Validation Comparison against other model (Benchmarking)Another method to validate new model is to use another model that has been validated against field measurement as a benchmark model.Several transient fault scenarios can be performed using both models, and the results can be compared.Parameter TuningThe new model and the benchmark model may have some differences in implementation, we may have to perform parameter tuning to match the output of the benchmark model.However, one should realize that the model may not be able to match the output of the benchmark model in all transient events.Parameter SensitivityIn order to limit the number of parameters that should be tuned, parameter sensitivity analysis may need to be performed.In general important parameters are varied one by one and the sensitive parameters can be tuned to match the bench mark model.
25 Example of Model to Model Comparison (Type 2 “Detailed” Model vs Generic Model) Terminal VoltageReal PowerTurbine SpeedReactive Power25
26 Model with the parameter Parameter SensitivityThe output of the simulation and the measured data can be used to find the total error of the measurement.Perr = |Pmeas.-Psimulated|Qerr = |Qmeas.-Qsimulated|The error and the sensitivity parameter k1 with respect to the error can be computed.Use the other parameters k1, k2, k3, k4 etcThe parameter sensitivity can be observed from the results.The trend can be used to drive the changes of the parameters.Actual Wind Plant+Model with the parameterto be tuned-InputT(k)Parameter k
28 Sensitivity of P output to a range of parameters. Parameter Sensitivity - ExampleResponse of P output.Qualitatively similar results for other outputs.Note that a lot of parameters have small and/or correlated influence.Sensitivities obtained as a by-product of running the simulation.Sensitivity of P output to a range of parameters.
29 SummaryWind power plant model is different from conventional synchronous generator modeling in different aspects:Different types of generators used (level of capability for reactive compensation, voltage controllability, and LVRT are different)Wind power plant represents hundreds of generators (i.e. the collective behavior of all turbines is more important than the behavior of individual turbines)Wind power plant covers a very large area. During faults, each generator may have different operating condition with respect to other generators due to diversity within the wind plant.The simplification or equivalencing wind power plant may compromise the accuracy of the simulation, however, a complete model requires to represent hundreds of turbines (impractical)In some cases, components of the system needs to be simplified for many different reasons (NDA, complexity, time constant of interest).
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