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CMPLDW November 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "CMPLDW November 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 CMPLDW November 2011

2 Phase 1

3 WECC Composite Load Model (CMPLDW)
12.5-kV 13.8-kV M 69-kV 115-kV 138-kV M AC UVLS Electronic UFLS Static

4 Composite Load Model Structure
Composite load model structure is implemented in General Electric’s PSLF, Siemens PTI PSS®E, Power World Simulator Similar model exists in PowerTech’s TSAT TSS approved Composite Load Model Structure

5 Composite Load Model Data
Load Component Model Data Distribution Equivalent Data M M 115-kV 230-kV M Load Model Composition Data M UVLS and UFLS Data Electronic Static

6 Process

7 Utilities, SRWG MVWG WECC Staff Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Populate load LID in WECC base case Provide bus-specific load composition, if desired, to over-ride defaults Utilities, SRWG Maintain load composition seasonal defaults for 12 climate zones and 4 feeder types + industrial loads Maintain dynamic motor model data MVWG Create records with default load composition Update load composition records Create CMPLDW dynamic model records WECC Staff

8 Load Composition Data

9 CMPLDW Long ID “Long ID” field in PSLF program is used to identify the load climate zone and substation type The LID consists of 7 characters. For commercial, residential, and rural loads, the LID code is a combination of the Climate Zone and Feeder Type: <3-character climate zone>_<3-character load class> A load in downtown Phoenix with high concentration of commercial loads would be identified as "DSW_COM" Rural agricultural load in Moses Lake, WA would be identified as "NWI_RAG" For industrial loads, the LID code will be one of the Industrial Load IDs, which starts with “IND_”.   For power plant auxiliary loads, the LID code will be “PPA_AUX”.

10 WECC Climate Areas ID Climate Zone Representative City NWC
Northwest Coast Seattle, Vancouver BC NWV Northwest Valley Portland OR NWI Northwest Inland Boise, Tri-Cities, Spokane RMN Rocky Mountain North Calgary, Montana, Wyoming NCC Northern California Coast Bay Area NCV Northern California Valley Sacramento NCI Northern California Inland Fresno SCC Southern California Coast LA, San Diego SCV Southern California Valley SCI Southern California Inland DSW Desert Southwest Phoenix, Riverside, Las Vegas HID High Desert Salt Lake City, Albuquerque, Denver, Reno

11 LID Regions NWC – Northwest coast NWV – Northwest valley
NWI – Northwest inland RMN – Rocky mountain NCC – N. Calif. coast NCV – N. Calif. valley HID – High desert SCC – S. Calif. coast SCV – S. Calif. valley DSW – Desert southwest NWC` RMN NWI NWV NCC HID NCV SCV SCC DSW

12 Substation / Feeder Types
ID Feeder Type Residential Commercial Industrial Agricultural RES 70 to 85% 15 to 30% 0% COM 10 to 20% 80 to 90% MIX Mixed 40 to 60% 0 to 20% RAG Rural Agricultural 40% 30% 10% 20% Percentage is energy, not customer count

13 Load Composition Model
David Chassin at PNNL led the development of load composition data Detailed models of various building types Residential loads are modeled using ELCAP data and DOE-2 models Commercial loads are taken from CEUS WECC developed mapping from end-uses to models



16 Load Class Model Components

17 WECC Load Composition Model (Light)

18 Load Composition Model (LCM)
Currently load composition is “estimated” for five conditions “Normal” 1 in 2 summer “Peak” summer “Cool” summer Shoulder (spring/fall) “Normal” winter A default data file is produced for the Load Model Data Tool (LMDT)

19 LCM Load Shape Validation (New)
Several utilities (PSE, SRP, PG&E, BPA) provided historic load shapes, temperatures, and substation information to PNNL for model validation David Chassin has calibrated LCM, this work will continue, improvement is very desirable

20 Future work Better understanding of “electrification” by regions, and ultimately by substations Validation of building models Right now commercial data is extrapolated from California CEUS, and residential data is used from ELCAP Validation of load shapes at substation level: Use customer mix data and models to produce load shapes Validate the load shapes using SCADA data (5-min and 1–hour are available from utilities)

21 Future work PNNL will develop the “next generation” LCM that will combine the ease of interface of light model with the computational capabilities of the full model, including the capabilities of validating the load shapes Need to discuss on how to integrate with BCCS

22 Motor Data

23 Commercial Compressor Motor

24 Commercial Fan and Pump Motors

25 Commercial Fan and Pump Motors

26 Protection Industrial compressors: Industrial fans and pumps
Trip and lock-out - half at 75%, half at 65%, 3 to 5 cycles Industrial fans and pumps Trip and lock-out - half at 75%, half at 65%, 3 to 5 cycles Commercial compressors Trip and lock-out: 20% of motors, trip < 60% 2 cycles Trip and reclose: remaining, trip < 50% 2 cycles , reclose > 60% for 0.2 sec Fans and pumps

27 Protection

28 Industrial Loads

29 Industrial Load LIDs ID Feeder Type IND_PCH Petro-Chemical Plant
IND_PMK Paper Mill – Kraft process IND_PMT Paper Mill – Thermo-mechanical process IND_ASM Aluminum Smelter IND_SML Steel Mill IND_MIN Mining operation IND_SCD Semiconductor Plant IND_SRF Server Farm IND_OTH Industrial – Other

30 Industrial Load Models

31 Tools for Load Model Data Management

32 WECC Composite Load Model
cmpldw "CANYON " "1 " : #1 mva= "Bss" 0 "Rfdr" "Xfdr" 0.04 "Fb" 0.749/ "Xxf" 0.08 "TfixHS" 1 "TfixLS" 1 "LTC" 1 "Tmin" "Tmax" 1.1 "step" / "Vmin" "Vmax" 1.04 "Tdel" 30 "Ttap" 5 "Rcomp" 0 "Xcomp" 0 / "Fma" "Fmb" "Fmc" "Fmd" "Fel" / "PFel" 1 "Vd1" 0.75 "Vd2" 0.65 "Frcel" 0.35 / "Pfs" "P1e" 2 "P1c" "P2e" 1 "P2c" "Pfreq" 0 / "Q1e" 2 "Q1c" -0.5 "Q2e" 1 "Q2c" "Qfreq" -1 / "MtpA" 3 "MtpB" 3 "MtpC" 3 "MtpD" 1 / "LfmA" 0.75 "RsA" 0.04 "LsA" 1.8 "LpA" 0.12 "LppA" / "TpoA" "TppoA" "HA" "etrqA" 0 / "Vtr1A" 0.7 "Ttr1A" "Ftr1A" 0.2 "Vrc1A" 1 "Trc1A" 9999 / "Vtr2A" 0.55 "Ttr2A" "Ftr2A" 0.75 "Vrc2A" 0.65 "Trc2A" 0.1 / "LfmB" 0.75 "RsB" 0.03 "LsB" 1.8 "LpB" 0.19 "LppB" / "TpoB" 0.2 "TppoB" "HB" "etrqB" 2 / "Vtr1B" 0.65 "Ttr1B" "Ftr1B" 0.1 "Vrc1B" 1 "Trc1B" 9999 / "Vtr2B" 0.6 "Ttr2B" "Ftr2B" 0.1 "Vrc2B" 1 "Trc2B" / "LfmC" 0.75 "RsC" 0.03 "LsC" 1.8 "LpC" 0.19 "LppC" / "TpoC" 0.2 "TppoC" "HC" "etrqc" 2 / "Vtr1C" 0.65 "Ttr1C" 0.05 "Ftr1C" 0.1 "Vrc1C" 1 "Trc1C" 9999 / "Vtr2C" 0.6 "Ttr2C" 0.03 "Ftr2C" 0.1 "Vrc2C" 1 "Trc2C" / "LfmD" 1 "CompPF" 0.98 / "Vstall" 0.54 "Rstall" 0.1 "Xstall" 0.1 "Tstall" "Frst" 0.14 "Vrst" 0.95 "Trst" 0.3 / "fuvr" 0.1 "vtr1" 0.6 "ttr1" 0.02 "vtr2" 0.9 "ttr2" 5 / "Vc1off" 0.5 "Vc2off" 0.6 "Vc1on" 0.4 "Vc2on" 0.5 / "Tth" 15 "Th1t" 0.7 "Th2t" 1.9 "tv" 0.025

33 LMDT 3A Powerflow case (done by SRWG)
Climate zone and load type are identified in “Long_ID” column of “load” table in PSLF E.g. DSW_RES = Desert Southwest, predominantly residential loads EPCL Programs (done by WECC Staff) Default data sets for each climate zone and feeder type Ability to over-ride defaults with specific information Creates composite load model records for PSLF PTI PSS®E Users Convert from PSLF models IPLAN tolls may be available ? Load models will be distributed by WECC staff with study cases LMDT 3A is posted on WECC web-site, including user’s manual

34 Current State

35 Conclusions WECC Composite load model is implemented in GE PSLF, Siemens PTI PSS®E, Power World, Power Tech TSAT Tools are developed for load model data management Default sets are developed: 12 climate zones in WECC, four types of feeders Summer, winter and shoulder conditions

36 Conclusions TSS and PCC approved the implementation plant
SRWG is populating LIDs for 2012 Heavy Summer case Instructions are developed Two webinars are conducted WECC members will conduct the system impact studies using 2012 Heavy Summer and Light Summer operating cases

37 Phase 2 – Not Only Load Model

38 FIDVR Composite load model is capable of reproducing the FIDVR phenomenon Composite load model can be tuned with reasonable data sets to match the historic events MVWG at this point is not comfortable recommending using CMPLDW for FIDVR studies for compliance purposes There is a concern that the FIDVR modeling can result in over- investment or unnecessary operational restrictions

39 FIDVR Modeling – Air-Conditioners
SCE, BPA, EPRI tested a number of units, understand how an ac unit behaves when subjected to disturbances EMTP-level models are developed AHRI input through the DOE project was very valuable The stall phenomenon is point-on-wave dependent Need better understanding of what voltages are seen by air- conditioners in a distribution network during a fault Therefore, PSCAD studies are planned under the DOE project Disturbance collection by SCE and CNP are very valuable

40 FIDVR Modeling – Load Protection
John Kueck prepared a report for WECC on motor protection Very informative, but show the complexity of the issue Planned activities include: Surveys and meetings with electrical contractors to better understand the protection practices Develop the “best practices” by balancing the grid requirements with the equipment protection needs Industry outreach on “best practices” Testing contactors at BPA lab Incorporate load protection information in the Load Composition Model

41 FIDVR Modeling – Load Composition
PNNL will work with WECC on the development of the next version of the Load Composition Model that retains key features of the complex model and has simplicity of the “light” model. WECC LMTF will contact building operators – retailers, groceries, office, malls, restaurants and data centers – to get better information on (a) load shapes and load composition, (b) typical electrical end-uses and their size, and (c) protection and process controls used in the electrical equipment PNNL will work with WECC utilities on validating the load shapes using historic data for various regions within the West

42 FIDVR Modeling – Unbalanced Faults
Issue NERC TPL Standards require studying of delayed clearing faults as 1-phase faults Existing positive sequence programs do not represent the AC stall in a single phase or the AC stall spreading PSCAD studies are expected to provide an insight in AC behavior during unbalanced faults, modeling recommendations will follow

43 FIDVR Modeling – Power Plant Ride Through
Current State PSLF program has “lhvrt” and “lhfrt” models to represent generator ride-through protection. PSLF has “gp1” model of a typical protection package of a synchronous generator Next Steps Utilities can work with power plant operators to evaluate their plant ride-through capabilities to populate “lhvrt” records. WECC MVWG will perform review of “gp1” model in GE PSLF Utilities can conduct meeting with power plant operators to determine a set of “typical” protection data Power plants, HVDC, and SVS can trip or experience an unexpected power reduction because of many reasons – e.g. station service problems during a fault, FIDVR or power swing. It is not practical to have mathematical models for these conditions, and the best approach is to perform sensitivity analysis for Category D type events

44 FIDVR Modeling – Reactive Limits
Next Steps Review the excitation system models and to reduce the set of active models Develop and implement new Over-Excitation Limiter (OEL) models in GE PSLF Develop and implement Under-Excitation Limiter (UEL) models in GE PSLF Review whether reactive power limits are adequately represented in the generic wind turbine models

45 FIDVR Modeling – Shunt Capacitors
Current State GE PSLF program has “msc1” model for switching mechanically switched capacitors. The model has two definite-time on and off settings. Next Steps Develop epcls to convert “svd” data to “shunt” records in PSLF WECC utilities need to provide data for “msc1” model. GE PSLF program needs to expand the model to mechanically-switched shunt reactors

46 FIDVR Modeling – Line Relaying
Current State GE PSLF program currently has several models for various types of line protection, including a “default” model “zlinw” Next Steps ???

47 Conclusion Phase 2 may take several years to complete
Planners are encouraged to do sensitivity studies with air-conditioner stalling enabled to test the robustness of proposed grid reinforcements

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