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Hinduism The Rise of Modern Religion in the Indus River Valley.

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Presentation on theme: "Hinduism The Rise of Modern Religion in the Indus River Valley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hinduism The Rise of Modern Religion in the Indus River Valley

2 India Before Hinduism Indus River Valley Civilization 2500 and 1500 B.C 2 cities: Harappa and Mohenjo- daro Orderly plans of the cities Prototypical symbols and figurines

3 Decline of the Indus River Valley Civilization Decline b/w 1750 B.C and 1500 B.C Causes: floods, internal disputes and invasion by Aryans (where have you seen this before?) Aryans conquered the cities of the IRV civilization Assimilation between Aryans and people of IRV Dasu and distaste for IRV practices

4 Creation of the Indian Caste System Caste system called varna meaning “color” Aryan’s caste system before invasion priest, warrior and merchant After invasion, Indian society was separated into 4 basic castes: Brahmin : priest Ksatriya : warrior Vaisya : merchant Sudra : servant Dalit : “Untouchables” Thousands of jati

5 The Indian Caste System

6 Religious Texts of Hinduism The Vedas written b/w 1200 and 800 B.C.E (oldest literature) Collection of chanted hymns and ceremonial formulae Includes Brahmans and Upanishads texts as part of the Sruti (hearing”) tradition 4 Vedas : Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva. Rig outlines ceremonies most crucial in restoring rta or “Vedic cosmic order” & ensuring the existance of the world for another year

7 Gods of Hinduism Hinduism is monotheistic Multiple gods are considered avatars or “forms” of Ultimate Reality/ Truth Forms of Ultimate Reality: Brahma: creator of the world Vishnu/ Krishnu:"All-Pervading," protector of world and restorer of moral order ( dharma) Shiva: the destroyer Devi: Divine Female, known as the Mother Goddess. What role do local gods play in the community?

8 Karma Karma means “actions” or “deeds” Refers to intentional (moral) actions that affect one's fortunes in this life and the next- a system of cause and effect Good versus bad karma (bad karma is what we typically think of) Good Karma from good actions Bad Karma from bad actions Bad Karma binds a person’s soul to the cycle of rebirth  determines class, disposition and character

9 Brahman Goal: To reach Ultimate Reality Ultimate Reality called Brahman Brahman is “the eternal, conscious, irreducible, infinite, omnipresent, spiritual source of the universe of finiteness and change.”- Upanishads Job of good karma

10 Literature of India and Hinduism Bhagavad- Gita: Chapter 3 The Bhagavad- Gita ( Mahabharata ) is the longest written epic that has been found 90,000 verses Believed to be finished 7 th and 6 th centuries B.C.E. Considered to be a song that outlines the importance of ceremonies in the form of stories Chapter 3 is about the importance of karma yoga or karma in order to bind or release self from world

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