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1. GRAND COAL GASIFICATION & POWER GENERATION 2 Future alternate fuel is Coal which can be burnt clean dirt free only through GASIFICATION In Gasification.

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Presentation on theme: "1. GRAND COAL GASIFICATION & POWER GENERATION 2 Future alternate fuel is Coal which can be burnt clean dirt free only through GASIFICATION In Gasification."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Future alternate fuel is Coal which can be burnt clean dirt free only through GASIFICATION In Gasification the coal is not burnt directly so, no firing no smoke,no pollution,no EPA limits violation. 3

4 COAL GASIFICATION SynGas Technology is offered to generate power 4

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6 COAL GASIFICATION 1Kg Coal Produces around 3m³ of Gas The Calorific Value of this gas depends upon the calorific value of Coal used. 6

7 COMPOSITION OF COAL GAS H 13 – 16% N 45- 52% CO 26 – 30 % CH 1.5- 3% CO 4-5.6% O 0.1-0.8% 7

8 ENERGY VALUE OF COAL The energy density of coal is its heating value= 24 MJ per kg One kilowatt-hour = 3.6 MJ The thermodynamic efficiency of coal power plants= 30% The energy density of coal may also be expressed inkilowatt-hour The energy density of coal= 6.67 kW·h/kg. 30% of 6.67 kW·h=2.0 kW·h/kg (can successfully be turned into electricity; the rest is waste heat) So coal power plants obtain approximately 2.0 kW·h per kilogram of burned coal. 8

9 What is COAL GASIFIER? Coal Gasifier, a Gas Generator, is: Energy saving and Environmental protection equipment 9

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11 How Coal Gas is Produced? Air and Steam mixture act as Gasifying agent and Coal as Fuel In the Gasifier heart Coal and Gasifying agent have Oxidation Reduction reactions at high temperature Coal Gas is produced which mainly consist of: Carbon Mono Oxide and Hydrogen 11

12 GASIFYING INDEX Air Consumption per kg Coal2.1m³ Steam Consumption per kg Coal0.4kg 12

13 WHERE COAL GAS IS USED Coal Gas is used in: Metallurgy Ceramic Glass making Refractory & Electricity Generation 13

14 TYPE OF COAL GASIFIRE Single Stage Coal Gasifier Double Stage Coal Gasifier 14

15 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISRICS Double-stage coal Gasifier is specially designed for gasifying bituminous coal (light tar can be carbonized out from coal in pyrolysis section). higher gas calorific value produced than that of produced with Single Stage Gasifier. better environmental protection performance. Big carbonization sectional area and coal storage. Slow coal bed lowering. Long carbonization time make coal carbonized completely. 15

16 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Double-stage coal Gasifier is characterized by High gas production capacity, Good gasification efficiency, Better coal adaptability, High gas calorific value, Easy operation and Strong safety performance. 16

17 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Double-stage coal Gasifier is also characterized with convective heat transmission, simple structure, convenient maintenance and small investment. 17

18 STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS Body structure: »Wholly water-jacketed structure, Self-produced steam with a pressure of 49 Kpa which can be used as gasifying agent. Coal feeding mechanism(with hydraulic control): Automatic coal feeding Manual coal feeding De-slagging mechanism: Wet slag removal from both sides is made by ratchet wheel & detent or worm wheel & worm with hydraulic drive. 18

19 STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS Coal feeding section: Practical and reliable coal-level detector cooperates with stoker to realize automatic coal feeding and guarantee coal Gasifier is in full charge layer operation. Pyrolysis section: Furnace lining Gasifying section: Water jacket structure is adopted and self-produced steam is used for gasification. Coal feeding mechanism: Advanced upper roller, Middle flashboard Lower bell jar mechanism is adopted. Characterized by simple operation, easy maintenance and good gas-tightness. 19

20 STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS Slag collecting mechanism: Wet slag removal from both sides is made by ratchet wheel & detent with hydraulic drive. Self-designed plough-type special plate is adopted for slag removal,Characterized by steady drive and smooth deslagging. Plough-type plate has been used in many types of domestic and imported coal Gasifier. 20

21 Gasifier is divided into Ash layer oxidation layer reduction layer carbonization layer & drying layer. 21

22 The coal is dried and carbonized in the Carbonization stage of the gas producer. The coal is poured into the hearth with the stoker. The coal descends slowly and reaches gasification stage after 10-12 hrs. Air & steam is inserted from the bottom of the gasifier 22

23 PRINCIPAL OF GAS PRODUCTION C + O = CO + heat C + CO = 2CO –heat 2CO + H O = CO + H - heat C + 2H O = CO + 2H - heat 23

24 In the carbonization stage the moisture in the coal is totally released by the heat prodced from part of the rising gas. Tar & most of the Sulpher also carbonised, A part of the gas produced by gasifying coke of half-coke shape in the gasification stage, rises to the carbonization stage, another part forms the down side gas. 24

25 The upside gas enters the electric coke knocker through the cyclone coke knocker and then mixes with the down side gas. The down side gas after passing through the cyclone dust cleaner enters the cooler and temperature drops from 400- 500C to 150-180C and mixes with up-side gas. 25

26 The mixed gas with enter the indirer water cooled and cooled down to normal temperature. After passing through the electric dust remover where dust and light oil will be removed the gas is now ready for use.. 26

27 The coal tar, light oil and condensate liquid segregated from the electric coke knocker will enter the segregation pool, after segregation the coal tar and light oil can be supplied outside and the condensate liquid canbe used as fuel with the water-coal slurry after mixing with the fine. 27

28 COAL Coal are of four main types Lignite or brown coal Bituminous Sub-bituminous Anthracite 28

29 COAL Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters Mostly controlled by Moisture, Carbon content. Volatile content (in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) 29

30 COAL SPECIFICATION Coal Specifications for Coal Gasifier (specifications may be changed according to Gasifier design and cost) Granularity mm 20~40, 25~50,30~60 Contrast between the Maximum size and minimum size 2 Undersize Fraction % 10 Percentage of Waste Rock % 2 Volatile matter of dry basis Vd% 20 Ash of dry basis Ad% 18 Total Sulpher of dry basis Std% 2 Softening Temprature of Ash ST 1250 C Heat Stability TS +6 % >60 Crushing Strength (>25 mm) (%) < 60 Roga Index RI 20 Crucible Swelling No FSI 2 30

31 ENERGY VALUE OF COAL Running one 100-watt light bulb for one year requires (100 W × 24 h/day × 365 day/year = 876000 Wh =876 kWh) Physical coal consumption: It takes 438 kg (966 lb) of coal to power a 100-watt light bulb for one year. Transmission and distribution losses caused by resistance and heating in the power lines, is in the order of 5–10%, depending on distance from the power station and other factors 31

32 CARBON INTENSITY OF COAL Commercial coal has a carbon content 70%. Coal with a heating value of 6.67 kWh/kg has a carbon content = 80%, The useful energy output of coal =30% of the 6.67 kWh/kg The burning of 1 kg of coal produces =2 kWh of electrical energy 1 kg coal emits =2.93 kg CO 2 The direct CO 2 emissions from coal power =1.47 kg/kWh, or 0.407 kg/MJ. 32

33 A comparison of Carbon intensity of coal The U.S. Energy Information Agency's 1999 report on emissions for energy generation quotes for Coal power =0.963 kg CO 2 /kWh Oil power = 0.881 kg CO 2 /kWh Natural gas = 0.569 kg CO 2 /kWh Nuclear power =100 time lower hydro, and wind 33

34 World Coal Reserves Energy Information Administration 930 billion short tons of recoverable coal reserves estimated = 4,116 BBOE (billion barrels of oil equivalent) 34

35 World Coal Reserves Energy Information Administration In terms of heat content Coal Provided 57,000,000 barrels (9,100,000 m 3 ) of oil equivalent per day. Natural gas provided 51,000,000 barrels (8,100,000 m 3 ) of oil equivalent per day, Oil provided 85,800,000 barrels per day 35

36 World Coal Reserves Energy Information Administration Global peak coal production may occur sometime around 2025 at 30 percent above current production Coal is mined in over 100 countries, and on all continents except Antarctica. The largest reserves are found in the USA, Russia, China, India and Australia. Pakistan also has newly discovered large reserves about 185 billion tons. [68 ] [68 ] 36

37 World Coal Reserves Energy Information Administration BP estimated at 2006 end there were of proven coal reserves worldwide, 909,064 million tons or 147 years reserves-to-production ratio Proved recoverable coal reserves at end-2006 (million tones (teragrams)) CountryBituminous & anthracite Sub Bituminous & lignite TOTAL Share United StatesUnited States 111,338135,305246,64322.6 ChinaChina 62,20052,300114,50012.6 IndiaIndia 90,0852,36092,44510.2 PakistanPakistan0185,000185,00017.0 South AfricaSouth Africa 48,750048,7505.4 IndonesiaIndonesia 7404,2284,9680.5 37

38 How our solution will help you? Coal supply worldwide is abundant Electricity generated thru Coal Gasification will cost < Rs. 10.00 per unit Your investment cost will be < $ 1000 Per eKWh Pay back of your investment will be < 2 years 38

39 39 Pakistans energy mix compared to India PakistanIndia 39

40 THANKS 40

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