34% Early majority Time of adoption of innovations Early adopters 2.5% Innovators 34% Late majority 16% Laggards 13.5% ChasmChasm Immature solution No killer application Adoption of Innovations
Large-scale Innovation R&D Demonstration Pre-commercial Supported commercial Commercial Technology push Market pull UK Innovation Systems for New and Renewable Energy Technologies, June 2003. ICCEPT Motors?
MRI – but why not motors? NMR: MRI (software) Magnets, 4.2K He 1.5T typical (3T Siemens pictured) $4 billion/y
Benefits of SC motors High power density High partial load efficiency Low noise (air core) Superior negative sequence capability Excellent transient stability Low synchronous reactance - small load angle Low harmonic content Cyclic load insensitivity Low maintenance
150kW Reliance Motor Racetrack coils forming the rotor.
746kW Motor: July 2000 AMSC/Rockwell Demonstration of High Efficiency Design Key Product DevelopmentBenchmark… B2223 Wire B2223 Wire 1,800 rpm 1,800 rpm 97.1% Efficiency 97.1% Efficiency 1,600 hp peak load 1,600 hp peak load
3.7 MW Motor: July 2001 Designed by AMSC to Reduce Manufacturing Costs B2223 Wire B2223 Wire 1,800 rpm 1,800 rpm 97.2% Efficiency 97.2% Efficiency at full load 5,000hp at full load 5,000hp 7,000 hp peak load 7,000 hp peak load
AC Power Superconductors Motor Operating Range Higher running costs, lower wire costs Lower running costs, uses more wire Higher running costs = Higher cryogenic capital costs Higher magnetic field capability
Temperatures 020406080 T (K) He H Ne O N CO Liquid Phase at 1 atmosphere Operating Range Cryogen Gap
Capital costs 1 MW machine Cryogenic systems are ~4-6 $/W (electric) Cold-side losses are 50W+0.03 W/kW, so for a 1MW motor are 80W at 27K, requires a 6kW (e) cryocooler if 8% Carnot eff. Thus cryogenics costs ~$40k since it must be priced to the peak load Energy saved > $7k a year So a 6-year payback period. (NPV is worse)
Cryogenic arguments New work in neon cryogen systems seems sensible Conduction-cooled machine designs need exploring 20-24K and 27K-35K Thermal reservoirs need investigating Reducing the capital cost of cryogenics is more important than their efficiency for motor markets Industrial markets for motors depend on cryogenics costs more than on superconductor costs or properties – even at 77K.
Mulholland ORNL Model Assumed by analogy with other fibres B2223/YBCO Wire cost ($/kA.m) Magnesium Diboride
Mulholland ORNL Model June 2003 Assumed market growth rates Motors >370kW
Motor Markets Energy efficiency argument is true, but cost savings undermined by cryogenics capital cost. Market will depend on size and weight benefits. Manufacturing benefits of reduced size: production line instead of build in-situ but early adopters will be build to order companies Transport applications, self-weight issues, volume (drag) issues.
Shipping $2 billion market in 20MW ships motors by 2010 Reliability of cryogenics also an issue Superconducting generators too in due course
Superconducting Mag-Lev Trains ? Best for 330 – 500 km/h, 300-500km, acceleration Linear electric drive..
…or TGV and Eurostar ? Mag-lev in Shanghai uses conventional Cu/Fe Maybe the next time the Eurostar is re-engined, it will be with superconducting motors.
Mag-Lev Train in Service 2003 Shanghai airport 430 km/h 30 km Copper coils not s/c
Minesweepers Ray guns or trains ? Military uses Launchers Minesweepers
HPM & Crowd Control Directed Energy High Power Microwave, progressive penalty munitions Eureka Aerospace proposes a novel approach for denying ground vehicles the entrance to selected area by stopping them using a microwave system for stopping vehicles (MSSV). The proposed system consists of high power source, such as magnetron and suitable antenna to direct the microwave energy towards the vehicle and bring the vehicle to rest, without causing permanent damage to the vehicle or pose any danger to humans. The MSSV can be deployed in a variety of places including (1) an airborne platform such as helicopter… In March 2001, at its base in Quantico, Virginia, the Joint Non- Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD) unveiled its latest non- lethal weapon. The Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System (VMADS) which works through a special transmitter that fires two second bursts of focused microwave energy that causes a burning sensation on the skin of people up to 700 yards away. The beam penetrates less than a millimetre under the skin, heating the skin's surface but causing no burn marks. High power, low volume, low weight generators; low loss electrical conductors, high Q cavities
Transformers: a big prize Cost of Ownership in $/kW 2000 ABB SPI Phase I Analysis Cu (300 K) @ 300 A/cm 2 HTS (68 K)MgB 2 (25 K) Losses60 Cryo- Wire5 Total65 5 25 50 80 55 34 8 48 Paul Grant EPRI
Magnets: Quench Rutherford cable >2000 Nb-Ti filaments in Copper