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Cryogenic Refrigeration

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Presentation on theme: "Cryogenic Refrigeration"— Presentation transcript:


2 Cryogenic Refrigeration
Costs and Prospects K Nathan Hill Managing Director, Qi3 Superconductivity UK

3 Contents The cryogenic challenge
Where are the manufacturers coming from? Cryocooler development targets Who’s active in the area? Concluding remarks Superconductivity UK

4 The cryogenic challenge
A modern MRI magnet, 2003 U.S. Patent Office; “Apparatus and Method for Detecting Cancer in Tissue”; Raymond Damadian 1974 Superconductivity UK

5 The cryogenic challenge
October : A respected physicist has been awarded a Nobel Prize for his continuing research into one of the most important breakthroughs in medical science. Sir Peter Mansfield —the first Nottingham academic to receive such an accolade — has been awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work in the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to medical diagnosis - a breakthrough now recognized to be comparable with the discovery of x-rays. The award has been bestowed upon Sir Peter jointly with US researcher Professor Paul Lauterbur, also an international leader in the field of MRI. Many thousands of superconducting MRI systems are installed around the world Superconductivity UK

6 The cryogenic challenge
Cryocoolers are in multiple use MRI shield cooling Gas liquefaction Device cooling Semiconductor applications Research cryostats So why not in HTS? Superconductivity UK

7 The cryogenic challenge
Funding for cooler development has come from Particle physics Astronomy and space science IR device cooling for defence applications Scientific research Detector cooling for industrial analysis Only one of these is pursued for truly commercial purposes (and it’s hardly a vast market) Superconductivity UK

8 The cryogenic challenge
Factors affecting cooling requirements Operating temperature Electric current dissipation (DC/AC) Leaks from the outside world Geometrical proportions Applications vary hugely, thus leading to requirement for many cooler types Several immature technologies are available Not enough demand “right now” for any single application Stalemate Superconductivity UK

9 Patents Superconductivity UK

10 Cryocooler development targets
Cryogenic systems providing Watts of cooling power at 65-80K are required if devices utilizing high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are to become a part of the national electric power delivery and utilisation system Now Required 20% Carnot efficiency for 80K cooler >30% Carnot $ /Watt <$25/Watt High reliability (present systems depend heavily on redundancy) Operating availability >99.8% by 2007 Superconductivity UK

11 Cryocooler development targets
Primary targets Goals Objectives Outcomes Increased efficiency (present nominal 20%) >30% Carnot by 2005 Reduced operating expenses and market viability Lower capital cost (present nominal $100/Watt) <$25/Watt by 2007 with cryogenic components costing <10% of the system Reduced capital cost and market viability High reliability (present systems depend heavily on redundancy) Operating availability >99.8% by 2007 Mean time between failures of operating cryogenic system >30 years using redundancy and increased component reliability Source: Cryogenic Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program For Electric Systems, Executive Summary June 2001) Superconductivity UK

12 Cryocooler development targets
Secondary targets Goals Objectives Outcomes Size System and cryogenics 50% smaller by 2007 Utilisation of full HTS systems with increased power density Variable cooling capacity Cryogenics follow load using storage capacity or optimised variable speed drive techniques on HTS system by 2009 Significantly reduced penaly for operationg costs Historic price decline with volume and experience Reduced costs as HTS systems penetrate the market Commercial units at reasonable cost Transparency Customer acceptability by 2007 Low awareness of cryogenic system Minimal disruption No interference of normal operations Maintainability Average technicians can operate the system Soft failure mode Cryosystem failures allow alternate operational schemes Source: Cryogenic Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program For Electric Systems, Executive Summary June 2001) Superconductivity UK

13 The cryogenic challenge
The “Cryogenic Assessment report” recommended that: Standardization of power devices and concomitant cryocoolers can result in lower costs through higher volume production and product reliability Minimize cooled section moving parts in cryocooler designs, e.g., Stirling pulse tube Development of 1-2 kW cryocoolers (at 70-80K) able to operate at 30% of Carnot and cost $25/W Increase end-user (utility and industrial managers) familiarity and comfort with cryogenic system operations, maintenance and safety issues. Source: Gouge, M.J., et al.; “Final Draft: Cryogenics Assessment Report”, Oak Ridge National Labs & University of Wisconsin; April Superconductivity UK

14 The cryogenic challenge
Four standard systems proposed in the new DOE cryogenics initiative: Programme Target Application e.g. companies HTS-1 K BSCCO motor generators Programme not commenced HTS-2 K YBCO motor generators Cryomech HTS-3 K YBCO transformers Qdrive HTS-4 K Cables Qdrive/Praxair All with oil free compressors >25% Carnot efficiency and $60 per Watt at 65K Superconductivity UK

15 Source: MJ Gouge talk at 2002 DOE wire workshop 22.1.02
K Component BSCCO Heat load, Top YBCO Cable 3-5 kW/km at K Transformer (5-100 MVA) 50-100’s watt at or K 50-100’s watt at K Motors (1-10,000 HP) watt at K watt at K Generators ( MWe) watt at K watt at K FCLs 30 watt at 30 K 750 watt at 80 K ~ 1000 watt at K SMES, magnetic separation, MRI 10’s of watts at K watt at K Source: MJ Gouge talk at 2002 DOE wire workshop Superconductivity UK

16 The cryogenic challenge
Application Current cryogenics Future cryogenics HTS industrial motor Reverse Brayton, G-M single-stage cryocoolers G-M single-stage cryocoolers, pulse tube cryocooler HTS generator N/A HTS transformer G-M 2-stage cryocooler, LN with sub-cooling G-M single-stage and pulse tube cryocoolers, LN with sub-cooling HTS cable Open-cycle LN with sub-cooling, Reverse Brayton Reverse Brayton, Claude, large capacity cryocooler Fault current limiter G-M single-stage cryocoolers TBD SMES, magnetic separation, MRI, flywheel bearings G-M 2-stage cryocooler Superconductivity UK

17 Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003
Costs Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003 Superconductivity UK

18 Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003
Costs Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003 Superconductivity UK

19 Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003
Market demand Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003 Superconductivity UK

20 The market Projected market demand for cryogenic refrigerators ($k)
Year Motors Transformers Generators Cables Total 2007 58 2009 2 83 249 333 2011 7 294 849 1151 2013 32 1081 3319 4432 2015 142 49 3331 11320 14842 2019 1868 1231 10861 54100 68060 2021 4012 6187 11953 72149 94301 2023 5533 22114 11902 77709 117258 2025 6125 37128 11729 77546 132529 Source: Analysis of Future Prices and Markets For High temperature Superconductors (Mulholland et al, June 2003) Superconductivity UK

21 And do I believe market forecasts?
Superconductivity UK

22 Alliances 23.10.03 Superconductivity UK Date (start to end) Purpose
Cost Country Academic/Federal Company Develop more advanced manufacturing processes and higher performance for the commercial application of new type of high-temp. superconductor wire. $2.5m US DOE’s National labs: Argonne, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge American Superconductor 2004 Electricity transmission grid reliability system to owner of power grid In Orkney Islands ? Scottish and Southern Energy 2003- A 350-meter HTS cable that will be installed in the distribution system operated by Niagara Mohawk, a National Grid Company, $26m IGC, Super Power, Sumitomo Electric Industries, BOC and Nexans Develop a new HTS fault current limiter to protect utility grids from damaging surges in current. $6m current limiter for shipboard service. £0.7m UK IRC Cambridge Rolls-Royce plc, VA Tech, Diboride Conductors, [Space-Cryomagnetics] To develop advanced cryogenic systems to Support new HTS. $8m DOE’s Oak Ridge Lab. Praxair and Cryomech, Inc. Superconductivity UK

23 The companies Stirling BV Sumitomo Qdrive / Praxair Air Liquide Daiken
APD Advanced Research Systems (ARS) CTI Suzuki Shogun Aisan Seiki Ricor This doesn’t look quite so complicated when you focus on power applications Superconductivity UK

24 Specifications For Selected Large Cryocoolers
The companies Specifications For Selected Large Cryocoolers Product Type Input Power Weight Cooling Capacity COP Cryomech AL200 G-M 5 KW 160 kg K K 10% 9.6% Cryomech AL300 7.2 KW 118.8 kg 200 50K 250 60K 320 80K _ Cryomech AL330 K K K 12% CTI M 1050 I Stage GM 5.5 KW 126 kg K 5% APD DE-108 4.5 KW 100 kg K 6% Q drive 2S241K Stirling-type Pulse Tube Coolers 5.3 KW 198 kg K Q drive 2S297K 13 KW 455 kg K Q drive 2S362K 24 kw 590 kg K Stirling C&R LPC-01 Stirling 12 KW 850 kg K 15% Superconductivity UK

25 The companies Specifications For Selected Large Cryocoolers Contd.
Product Type Input Power Weight Cooling Capacity COP Stirling C&R LPC-01 Stirling 12 KW 850 kg K 15% Stirling C&R LPC-02 25 KW 1500 kg K 18% Stirling C&R LPC-04 60 KW 3750 kg K 17% Stirling C&R LPC-08 135 KW 7500 kg K 16% Stirling C&R SPC-01 11 KW 7.6 KW 5KW 600 kg K 2, K 3, K 26% 29% 13% Stirling C&R SPC-04 45 KW 31 KW 20 KW 1255 kg 4, K 9, K 14, k 27% 31% Aisin Seki Model SC Linear 14 KW _ K 20% Aisin Seki Model SS 6 KW K Source: Marty Nisenoff Superconductivity UK

26 Image copyright and courtesy Cryomech, Inc.
Cryomech, Inc. manufactures single and double-stage Gifford-McMahon and Pulse Tube cryorefrigerators. They have developed the AL300 and the AL330, and claim that they have the highest efficiency and cooling capacity to date of any available GM cryocooler at temperatures from 20 to 60K. Current research includes the development of a new generation of Stirling-type (valveless) pulse tube cryocoolers for 60 to 80K and higher efficiency Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers for 20 to 40K Source: SpaceDaily AL300 ColdHead-blue Image copyright and courtesy Cryomech, Inc. Superconductivity UK

27 Image copyright and courtesy Stirling Cryogenics
Manufacture Stirling cycle coolers LPC 1-8 (1 stage): 500W – 65K (4 models) GPC 1-4 (2 stage): 20K, 80K (2 models) Research ongoing in Stirling type Pulse Tube Coolers Recent Siemens project Siemens is testing High Temperature Superconducting Transformers for trains. These transformers operate at a temperature of 65K. Based on the SPC-4 cryogenerator, Stirling developed a cooling system using subcooled pressurized liquid nitrogen as a coolant. By using subcooled liquid nitrogen, no evaporation occurs and thus an optimal cooling of the transformer is established. Image copyright and courtesy Stirling Cryogenics Superconductivity UK

28 Qdrive Develops acoustic coolers (Stirling-type Pulse Tube Coolers)
Linear drive is claimed to have benefits for reliability, eliminating lubricants and cold moving parts Licensed >1kW systems to Praxair to access market Praxair recently introduced a LN2 liquefier based on an “HTS3” 200W cooler for around $70k The first for HTS-3 (the large can on top is just vacuum, the drive is on the bottom) The first large unit (1200 watts at 130K, for LNG, on a 20kW drive), the basis for HTS-4 Images copyright and courtesy CFIC-Qdrive, 2003 Superconductivity UK

29 Helix – CTI Cryogenics See the market for vacuum applications as more immediate and growing Recently acquired Granville-Phillips to provide vacuum measurement offering Some cold heads are used for HTS applications, but no focus in this area Superconductivity UK

30 Other companies APD Daiken? Ricor Hymatic … 23.10.03
Superconductivity UK

31 There are still cooler choices
Pulse tubes have their disadvantages: e.g. Cryomech GM-PTC 77K has 3.8kW input GM 77K has 2.2kW input They expect to achieve 85% of GM efficiency e.g. Stirling Cryogenics Early Stirling PTC has 50% of the efficiency of a regular Stirling cryocooler Superconductivity UK

32 Liquid cryogens Systems can still use: LN2, subcooled LN2 @ 63.5K
Liquid cryogens with recondensors Liquid cryogens with shield coolers Liquid cryogens with miniature liquefiers LN2, subcooled 63.5K Subcooled liquid 57K and other LOX/LN2 50.5K, all at 1 bar pressure And what about Neon and LOX? Source: Prof. Ralph Scurlock, Southampton Superconductivity UK

33 Concluding thoughts The cryogenics community needs an incentive to focus on the subject identify desired common design for high capacity refrigeration fund several development & demo projects including both improvement of today’s technology and acoustic technology The HTS Community needs an incentive to focus on AC loss Terminations The USA is now responding to this challenge – but where’s Europe? Superconductivity UK

34 Concluding thoughts Future industry consolidation
Are we really taking cryogenics seriously? What about the use of liquid cryogens in conjunction with cryocoolers? And what about new designs of cryostat? Where are the Europeans? Is there an opportunity in the 20-50K region? Superconductivity UK


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