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©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Cryogenic Refrigeration Costs and Prospects K Nathan Hill Managing Director, Qi3
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Contents The cryogenic challenge Where are the manufacturers coming from? Cryocooler development targets Whos active in the area? Concluding remarks
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge U.S. Patent Office; Apparatus and Method for Detecting Cancer in Tissue; Raymond Damadian 1974 A modern MRI magnet, 2003
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge October : A respected physicist has been awarded a Nobel Prize for his continuing research into one of the most important breakthroughs in medical science. Sir Peter Mansfield the first Nottingham academic to receive such an accolade has been awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work in the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to medical diagnosis - a breakthrough now recognized to be comparable with the discovery of x-rays. The award has been bestowed upon Sir Peter jointly with US researcher Professor Paul Lauterbur, also an international leader in the field of MRI. Many thousands of superconducting MRI systems are installed around the world
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge Cryocoolers are in multiple use MRI shield cooling Gas liquefaction Device cooling Semiconductor applications Research cryostats So why not in HTS?
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge Funding for cooler development has come from Particle physics Astronomy and space science IR device cooling for defence applications Scientific research Detector cooling for industrial analysis Only one of these is pursued for truly commercial purposes (and its hardly a vast market)
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge Factors affecting cooling requirements Operating temperature Electric current dissipation (DC/AC) Leaks from the outside world Geometrical proportions Applications vary hugely, thus leading to requirement for many cooler types Several immature technologies are available Not enough demand right now for any single application Stalemate
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Patents
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Cryocooler development targets Cryogenic systems providing Watts of cooling power at 65-80K are required if devices utilizing high- temperature superconductors (HTS) are to become a part of the national electric power delivery and utilisation system NowRequired 20% Carnot efficiency for 80K cooler >30% Carnot $ /Watt<$25/Watt High reliability (present systems depend heavily on redundancy) Operating availability >99.8% by 2007
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Cryocooler development targets Primary targets GoalsObjectivesOutcomes Increased efficiency (present nominal 20%) >30% Carnot by 2005Reduced operating expenses and market viability Lower capital cost (present nominal $100/Watt) <$25/Watt by 2007 with cryogenic components costing <10% of the system Reduced capital cost and market viability High reliability (present systems depend heavily on redundancy) Operating availability >99.8% by 2007 Mean time between failures of operating cryogenic system >30 years using redundancy and increased component reliability Source: Cryogenic Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program For Electric Systems, Executive Summary June 2001)
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Cryocooler development targets Secondary targets GoalsObjectivesOutcomes SizeSystem and cryogenics 50% smaller by 2007 Utilisation of full HTS systems with increased power density Variable cooling capacity Cryogenics follow load using storage capacity or optimised variable speed drive techniques on HTS system by 2009 Significantly reduced penaly for operationg costs Historic price decline with volume and experience Reduced costs as HTS systems penetrate the market Commercial units at reasonable cost TransparencyCustomer acceptability by 2007Low awareness of cryogenic system Minimal disruptionCustomer acceptability by 2007No interference of normal operations MaintainabilityCustomer acceptability by 2007Average technicians can operate the system Soft failure modeCustomer acceptability by 2007Cryosystem failures allow alternate operational schemes Source: Cryogenic Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program For Electric Systems, Executive Summary June 2001)
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge The Cryogenic Assessment report recommended that: Standardization of power devices and concomitant cryocoolers can result in lower costs through higher volume production and product reliability Minimize cooled section moving parts in cryocooler designs, e.g., Stirling pulse tube Development of 1-2 kW cryocoolers (at 70-80K) able to operate at 30% of Carnot and cost $25/W Increase end-user (utility and industrial managers) familiarity and comfort with cryogenic system operations, maintenance and safety issues. Source: Gouge, M.J., et al.; Final Draft: Cryogenics Assessment Report, Oak Ridge National Labs & University of Wisconsin; April
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge Four standard systems proposed in the new DOE cryogenics initiative: All with oil free compressors >25% Carnot efficiency and $60 per Watt at 65K ProgrammeTargetApplicatione.g. companies 25-40KBSCCO motor generators Programme not commenced 50-65KYBCO motor generatorsCryomech 65-80KYBCO transformersQdrive 65-80KCablesQdrive/Praxair
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK 65-80K ComponentBSCCO Heat load, T op YBCO Heat load, T op Cable 3-5 kW/km at K Transformer (5-100 MVA) s watt at or K s watt at K Motors (1-10,000 HP) watt at K watt at K Generators ( MWe) watt at K watt at K FCLs30 watt at 30 K 750 watt at 80 K ~ 1000 watt at K SMES, magnetic separation, MRI 10s of watts at K watt at K Source: MJ Gouge talk at 2002 DOE wire workshop
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The cryogenic challenge ApplicationCurrent cryogenicsFuture cryogenics HTS industrial motorReverse Brayton, G-M single-stage cryocoolers G-M single-stage cryocoolers, pulse tube cryocooler HTS generatorN/AG-M single-stage cryocoolers, pulse tube cryocooler HTS transformerG-M 2-stage cryocooler, LN with sub-cooling G-M single-stage and pulse tube cryocoolers, LN with sub- cooling HTS cableOpen-cycle LN with sub- cooling, Reverse Brayton Reverse Brayton, Claude, large capacity cryocooler Fault current limiterG-M single-stage cryocoolers TBD SMES, magnetic separation, MRI, flywheel bearings G-M 2-stage cryocoolerG-M single-stage cryocoolers, pulse tube cryocooler
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Costs Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Costs Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Market demand Source: Mulholland et al, DOE June 2003
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The market Projected market demand for cryogenic refrigerators ($k) YearMotorsTransformersGeneratorsCablesTotal Source: Analysis of Future Prices and Markets For High temperature Superconductors (Mulholland et al, June 2003)
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK And do I believe market forecasts?
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Alliances Date (start to end) PurposeCostCountryAcademic/FederalCompany Develop more advanced manufacturing processes and higher performance for the commercial application of new type of high-temp. superconductor wire. $2.5mUSDOEs National labs: Argonne, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge American Superconductor 2004Electricity transmission grid reliability system to owner of power grid In Orkney Islands ?USScottish and Southern Energy American Superconductor 2003-A 350-meter HTS cable that will be installed in the distribution system operated by Niagara Mohawk, a National Grid Company, $26mUSIGC, Super Power, Sumitomo Electric Industries, BOC and Nexans Develop a new HTS fault current limiter to protect utility grids from damaging surges in current. $6mUSDOEs National labs: Argonne, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge IGC, Super Power, Sumitomo Electric Industries, BOC and Nexans Develop a new HTS fault current limiter for shipboard service. £0.7mUKIRC CambridgeRolls-Royce plc, VA Tech, Diboride Conductors, [Space-Cryomagnetics] To develop advanced cryogenic systems to Support new HTS. $8mUSDOEs Oak Ridge Lab.Praxair and Cryomech, Inc.
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The companies Stirling BV Sumitomo Qdrive / Praxair Air Liquide Daiken APD Advanced Research Systems (ARS) CTI Suzuki Shogun Aisan Seiki Ricor … This doesnt look quite so complicated when you focus on power applications
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The companies Specifications For Selected Large Cryocoolers ProductTypeInput Power WeightCooling CapacityCOP Cryomech AL200G-M5 KW160 kg K K 10% 9.6% Cryomech AL300 G-M 7.2 KW118.8 kg200 50K K K _ Cryomech AL330 G-M 7.2 KW118.8 kg K K K 12% CTI M 1050I Stage GM5.5 KW126 kg K5% APD DE-108G-M4.5 KW100 kg K6% Q drive 2S241KStirling-type Pulse Tube Coolers 5.3 KW198 kg K_ Q drive 2S297KStirling-type Pulse Tube Coolers 13 KW455 kg K_ Q drive 2S362KStirling-type Pulse Tube Coolers 24 kw590 kg K_ Stirling C&R LPC-01Stirling12 KW850 kg K15%
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK The companies ProductTypeInput Power WeightCooling CapacityCOP Stirling C&R LPC-01Stirling12 KW850 kg K15% Stirling C&R LPC-02Stirling25 KW1500 kg K18% Stirling C&R LPC-04Stirling60 KW3750 kg K17% Stirling C&R LPC-08Stirling135 KW7500 kg K16% Stirling C&R SPC-01 Stirling 11 KW 7.6 KW 5KW600 kg K 2, K 3, K 26% 29% 13% Stirling C&R SPC-04 Stirling 45 KW 31 KW 20 KW1255 kg 4, K 9, K 14, k 27% 31% 15% Aisin Seki Model SCLinear Stirling14 KW _ K20% Aisin Seki Model SSLinear Stirling6 KW _ K20% Specifications For Selected Large Cryocoolers Contd. Source: Marty Nisenoff
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Cryomech Cryomech, Inc. manufactures single and double- stage Gifford-McMahon and Pulse Tube cryorefrigerators. They have developed the AL300 and the AL330, and claim that they have the highest efficiency and cooling capacity to date of any available GM cryocooler at temperatures from 20 to 60K. Current research includes the development of a new generation of Stirling-type (valveless) pulse tube cryocoolers for 60 to 80K and higher efficiency Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers for 20 to 40K Source: SpaceDaily Image copyright and courtesy Cryomech, Inc. AL300 ColdHead-blue
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Stirling Cryogenics Manufacture Stirling cycle coolers LPC 1-8 (1 stage): 500W – 65K (4 models) GPC 1-4 (2 stage): 20K, 80K (2 models) Research ongoing in Stirling type Pulse Tube Coolers Recent Siemens project Siemens is testing High Temperature Superconducting Transformers for trains. These transformers operate at a temperature of 65K. Based on the SPC-4 cryogenerator, Stirling developed a cooling system using subcooled pressurized liquid nitrogen as a coolant. By using subcooled liquid nitrogen, no evaporation occurs and thus an optimal cooling of the transformer is established. Image copyright and courtesy Stirling Cryogenics
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Qdrive Develops acoustic coolers (Stirling-type Pulse Tube Coolers) Linear drive is claimed to have benefits for reliability, eliminating lubricants and cold moving parts Licensed >1kW systems to Praxair to access market Praxair recently introduced a LN2 liquefier based on an HTS3 200W cooler for around $70k The first for HTS-3 (the large can on top is just vacuum, the drive is on the bottom) The first large unit (1200 watts at 130K, for LNG, on a 20kW drive), the basis for HTS-4 Images copyright and courtesy CFIC-Qdrive, 2003
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Helix – CTI Cryogenics See the market for vacuum applications as more immediate and growing Recently acquired Granville-Phillips to provide vacuum measurement offering Some cold heads are used for HTS applications, but no focus in this area
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Other companies APD Daiken? Ricor Hymatic …
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK There are still cooler choices Pulse tubes have their disadvantages: e.g. Cryomech GM-PTC 77K has 3.8kW input 77K has 2.2kW input They expect to achieve 85% of GM efficiency e.g. Stirling Cryogenics Early Stirling PTC has 50% of the efficiency of a regular Stirling cryocooler
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Liquid cryogens Systems can still use: Liquid cryogens Liquid cryogens with recondensors Liquid cryogens with shield coolers Liquid cryogens with miniature liquefiers LN2, subcooled 63.5K Subcooled liquid 57K and other LOX/LN2 50.5K, all at 1 bar pressure And what about Neon and LOX? Source: Prof. Ralph Scurlock, Southampton
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Concluding thoughts The cryogenics community needs an incentive to focus on the subject The cryogenics community needs an incentive to focus on the subject identify desired common design for high capacity refrigeration identify desired common design for high capacity refrigeration fund several development & demo projects including both improvement of todays technology and acoustic technology fund several development & demo projects including both improvement of todays technology and acoustic technology The HTS Community needs an incentive to focus on The HTS Community needs an incentive to focus on AC loss AC loss Terminations Terminations The USA is now responding to this challenge – but wheres Europe? The USA is now responding to this challenge – but wheres Europe?
©2003 Qi3 Ltd Superconductivity UK Concluding thoughts Future industry consolidation Are we really taking cryogenics seriously? What about the use of liquid cryogens in conjunction with cryocoolers? And what about new designs of cryostat? Where are the Europeans? Is there an opportunity in the 20-50K region?
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