Contents Introduction Function Application Advantages CCB-TOX
Introduction: what is the CCB-TOX ? Automatic water toxicity biomonitor Continuously monitors chemical contamination events. On-Line - sends alerts in real-time. Key element of an Early Warning System. CCB-TOX
Introduction: key benefits Significantly reduce the threats associated with accidental and intentional chemical contamination of water: Spills, accidents, dumping Equipment malfunction Natural disasters Sabotage & terror Acute & chronic exposure Illness & death Direct & indirect costs Liability suits
Introduction: key uses Drinking water monitoring: protecting public health by sensing changes in water quality at reservoirs, intake, during & after treatment, throughout the distribution network, protected zones, etc. Environmental monitoring: protecting the environment by sensing changes in water quality along rivers, lakes & natural reservoirs, as well as near potential effluent discharge areas. Water treatment monitoring: improving treatment processes effectiveness by sensing water quality changes at intake, and during treatment processes, enabling process modifications decisions & quality assurance.
Introduction: potential users Water companies: raw water suppliers, drinking water utilities, municipal water suppliers, water treatment plants. Authorities: environmental supervising & monitoring, river basin monitoring, health supervising, municipal water systems. Secured facilities: industrial zones & parks, hospitals, governmental, military. Industrial companies: water intake & discharge for bottlers, food and other water related processing companies.
Introduction: Key Features (1) On line, continuous monitoring, fully automated. Highly sensitive, detects real toxicity. Detection of a very broad range of contaminants. Very fast detection & warning: less than 15 minutes. Minimal false positive & negative response. High overall system reliability. Suspicious samples are captured by an automatic sampler for further analysis.
Introduction: Key Features (2) Remotely operated & controlled. Requires minimal operational intervention. Very easy to use - no special skills required. Easy installation & maintenance. No need for adjustments. Easily integrated with other systems.
CCB-TOX is an automatic toxicity biomonitor based on Bioluminescence. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism. A biomonitor (biological monitor) uses an organism (such as fish, daphnia,,mussels, algae, bacteria) that provides information about the quality of the environment (i.e. water) around it. Bioluminescence is a naturally occurring process by which a living organism converts chemical energy into light. Function – basics (1)
CCB-TOX is based on luminescent (light emitting) natural bacteria. Changes in the level of bacterial luminescence (light) indicate potential toxicity in the sampled water. CCB-TOX is able to measure and analyze changes in light levels, and as a result transmit an alert in case of toxicity. Function – basics (2)
Decreased luminescence Luminescence Level reflects degree of toxicity Function – luminous bacteria (1) Pesticides, Herbicides Chlorinated hydro- Carbons Gasoline, petrol oil Heavy metals Detergents Clean sample Contaminated sample Membrane function, Protein & lipid synthesis ATP generation, Electron transport, Cell respiration affecting
Freeze dried luminous bacteria are stable for long periods. A million cells are introduced into a small water sample, resulting in reduced effect of biological variability. Chemical toxicants that effect cells metabolism lead to rapid decay of luminescence. High correlation exists between the luminescence test and bioassays that apply higher organisms, such as fish. Function – luminous bacteria (2) Bacteria-based biosensors are ideal for use as early warning screening tools for drinking water security (USEPA).
Function - Luminous bacteria (3) Vibrio fischeri Photobacterium leiognathi Strain name Sea waterOrigin 15-16°C18-35°C Optimal temperature for light emission Microtox TM ToxControl TM LumisTox TM BioFix TM PCB-TOX (ToxScreen3) PCB-TOX-SPOT CCB-TOX Toxicity test utilized in LowHigh Stability to changing environmental conditions
Function - proprietary biotechnology Reaction to a wide spectrum of chemical agents. Sensitive to very low concentrations of toxicants. Results are obtained in minutes. Reliable and consistent results. Preliminary discrimination between cationic heavy metals & organic toxicants. Long term stable storage of biosensor bacteria Basic technology (ToxScreen) verified by the USEPA-ETV.
Examples of Detected Toxic Chemicals CCB-TOX IC50 (mg/L) Rat LD50 2 (mg/kg body weight) Toxic chemical 1 0.510Potassium cyanide 0.0914Arsenate (5) 0.2225Cadmium (2) 1.246Dieldrin 314Parathion 0.0860Methiocarb 0.782Chlorpyriphos Note-1 - chemicals that might be used for intentional contamination according to US Army reports Note-2 - lethal dose data taken from MSDS provided by manufacturers
1)Connected to inlet water and clean reference water. Continuously (365/7/24) draws samples (at predetermined intervals) into two assay chambers to detect: cationic heavy metals and organic toxicants. 2)The light sensor (PMT) records emitted luminescence and compares it to the level obtained in the reference reading. 3)To minimize false alarms, once a toxicity state is noted (e.g. 50% luminescence change), a repeat reading is taken and then a repeat reference test. If the result repeats itself, a toxicity alarm is turned on, 4)The suspected sample is drained into the grab sample container for future confirmation and analysis. Function – monitoring process
Function – monitoring specs. Bioassay: freeze-dried luminous bacteria. Buffer system: dual - cationic heavy metals & toxic organic chemicals. Detector: photomultiplier tube. Contaminants detected: > 150 toxic chemicals tested so far. Sensitivity: for most chemicals, detection ranges from ppb to low ppm. Measuring interval: programmable. Measuring time: 5-60 minutes.
Function – unique features High reliability & low maintenance: Automatic positive control tests. Double check before alert signaling. Automatic cleaning & flushing. Internal electronics self test mechanisms. Replacement of all biofouling-prone elements – every 4 weeks. Automatic remote signaling (alarms) of instrument malfunction. Minimal hands on required for operation & maintenance. Quick and easy monthly cartridge replacement//
Function – key elements Key elements include: Static unit includes various hardware components (cabinet, electronics, mechanics). Cartridge unit includes re-fill reagents (bacteria & buffers) and replaceable tubing. Management software includes various options – either embedded or server-based components.
Function – connections RS232 to GSM RJ45 to LAN Inlet water Outlet water Grab sample water two Reference water Grab sample water one Wash water
Function – front panel Bright alert lights. Complete local set up and control using easy press buttons. Basic LCD - 4 lines x 20 characters, support European fonts. Optional LCD with support of Chinese / English – 2 lines x 8 characters, (128x32 dots)
Operation – control panel Operation buttons: "Enter" – choose command / enter selected screen / approve parameter. "Esc" – back to previous screen / silent buzzer. "" – rolling lines up / move to next character position on the right. "" – rolling lines down / character and digit rolling cycle. "Enter" + "Esc" – LED's + buzzer test.
Function – static unit Cabinet with display Microprocessor Light detection module (PMT) Heating/cooling units Connections to inlet/outlet tubes Gantry, Motors Grab samples containers
Function – hardware specs. Power Supply: 90-264 VAC (~690VA) up to 250W. DC output – 12V. Hardware: specially designed control card (microprocessor, integrated keyboard and graphic LCD display) and motor card. Data storage: 256K Flash, 32K internal RAM, 1024K external RAM, (downloadable - automatically / remote PC poll). Alarms: warning light +buzzer, LCD display, external communication (user programmable). UPS – such as Advice PRPC750 or similar (required). Safety compliance: CE (EU) & UL (USA). Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
Function – physical specs Enclosure: IP55; IP65 on request Total weight: ~ 75 Kg without reagents Shipping weight: ~ 100 Kg. Size: 800x800x500 mm (H*W*D) Mounting: wall or rack mount Operating temperature: 5°C - 40°C Operating humidity: up to 95% Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
Function – hydraulic specs. Flow Rate: at least 60 Liter/hr. Pressure : 0.5-2 bar. Sample delivery: Inlet water pressure: 1.5 – 2 bar, Temperature: 5°C- 50°C, Volume: –at least 180 Liter/hr. Water connections: Standard 8x6 mm (N*), permanent female thread ¼ BSP + nipple. Various diameters supported. Waste: pressure free 16X14 mm; total accumulated volume (including inlet, wash, and reagents) - 150Liter/month. Reagents heater/cooler: thermo-electric cooler. Maintenance interval: once every 4 weeks, ~15 minutes. External containers: grab sample, wash, reference water. Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
Function – communication specs. Remote control: SMS (Short Message Service) over GSM (using a 3 rd party modem, i.e. EZ10 by Telit.). Data communication protocols: TCP/IP, Ethernet, GSM, SCADA Physical Communication port: Ethernet (RJ-45), RS-232 Data reporting interval: every 24hrs Modbus protocol for connection to SCADA systems (optional supported with CAS). Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
Function – Test cycle preparation Toxicity/Reference test Dispense 200μl Metal/Organic buffer Dispense 800μl Reference or inlet water Mix by air bubble Dispense 15.5μl Hydrated bacteria solution Mix by air bubble Enter into the PMT box and read the luminescence every minute during 15 minutes Positive control test Dispense 200μl Metal/Organic buffer Dispense 100μl Disinfection buffer (1:9 dilution) Dispense 700μl Reference water Mix by air bubble Dispense 15.5μl Hydrated bacteria solution Mix by air bubble Enter into the PMT box and read the luminescence every minute during 15 minutes OrganicDisinfectionMetalReference Inlet
Function – cartridge r eagents Each cartridge contains a 4 weeks supply of the following reagents (shipped at ambient temperature): Freeze dried bacteria vials (4). Pro-Metal Buffer Pro-Organic Buffer Disinfection (cleaning)/Positive control Solution Hydration/Storage Buffer
Two key options for management software of the CCB: Basic control software. Advanced Control & Analysis software – CAS. Function - management software Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
Basic control software: Basic presentation of test results in graphical form. Remote set up and control. Device-based, fully integrated, internal web server. IP-based proprietary communication protocol. One to one device management, configuration and reporting. SMS alerts. Supported languages: English, French, German, Italian, Spanish & Chinese. On-line help file. Function – basic software
Operation – Web server pages Entrance Page – Password and authorities
Function - Alarm state & Alert SMS messages Alarm messageAlarm typeCases Toxicity alert – MetalicToxicity Organic water contamination. Toxicity alert – OrganicToxicity Metalic water contamination. Instrument malfunctionMalfunction Positive control not working. Motor failure or Microcontroller's failure. Instrument reduced functionalityMalfunction Abnormal change (ascend or descend) in light level in reference water (relative level). Initial reference water light level is too low after inserting a new cartridge. Temperature off limitsMalfunction TEC (Thermo-Electric Cooler) failure. Temperature in bacteria chamber, assay chamber, storage buffer, inlet water and F.D. bacteria is off limits for a predefined period of time after power return. Unauthorized cartridge insertedInformative Un-authorized (damaged or used) cartridge unit insertion. Cartridge needs replacementInformative Reagents volume reaching low level. Cartridge hasn't been replaced on time. Power failureInformative Power supply failure. Power failure recoveryInformative Power supply returned after failure. Water flow problemInformative No inlet water flow. No reference water flow. Unauthorized door openInformative Unauthorized door open. Interlock cut off.
Function – advanced software Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice CAS – Control & Analysis Software
Key features: Easy remote monitoring and control of multiple CCB units. Intuitive data report generation and trend analysis. Alert management: e-mail, text-messages, cellular. Additional features: advanced backup; log file analysis; open interfaces, API. Alert management. Smooth integration and communication with 3 rd party devices & management systems (such as SCADA/GIS). Fully customized. Secure and reliable. Function – CAS Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
Management, Communication and Security: Application is managed either on external server (ASP / central database) or on customers server on-site (application and database with remote installation & support). Connectivity - Either LAN (gateway & firewall), Cellular communication (GSM/GPRS/CDMA/1X/UMTS/EVDO) or Satellite communication. Access via iCex controller (scheduled polling of CCB units) using either Modbus / TCP / COMP. No firewall settings are required. COMP communicated with customers central system (SCADA)> Secured data access (authorization levels, SSL) and integrity (central backup / restore & disaster / recovery mechanism). Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice Function – CAS
Customization: Fully customized: CCB parameters, user interface. Different polling schedule per CCB data element / value. Flexible format & validity checks per data element. Change history per data element. Customized user interface. Secured access from anywhere: PC, Cell phone, PDA.
Simple and straightforward: Physical mounting. Electricity, UPS and internet connection. Plumbing: inert filter, external containers (3), pressure regulator. Cartridge mounting. Assay vials insertion. Gantry positioning. (every 4 weeks – about 15 minutes work). Parameters set up: general. Testing and communications. Total first installation time: < 2 hours. CCB - Installation & maintenance
Accessories & add-ons Alternative / renewable power supply (i.e. solar). Communication option: wire and wireless. Inlet water self cleaning filters. Inlet water pressure reducer. Water / wash containers. Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
CCB - Future Options Detection of microbial outbursts in drinking water. Tailor-made tests for designated groups of toxic chemicals of interest. Detection of bacterial re-growth potential / bio-stability of drinking and process water. Preliminary – specification subject to change without notice
Application Key part of a comprehensive Early Warning Solution: Effective coverage of drinking water systems. Located at various stations throughout the water distribution system, Coupled with Portable Contamination Biomonitors. Pinpoint contamination boundaries & trace contamination sources. Sseamless integration with other monitors / sensors and customer management systems (i.e. SCADA).
AquaVerity Components CCB - Continuous Contamination Biomonitor PCB - Portable Contamination Biomonitor CAS - Control & Analysis Software package SIS - Solution Implementation Service package
Tiered Response Model Increasing: Certainty Response Cost Observed Water Quality Change (determined by broad-based continuous screening) Automated Sample Collection Confirmation Bioassay Chemical Analysis If positive Public health Regulatory or Remedial Action If positive PCB-TOX-SPOT CCB-TOC
How does the AquaVerity solution compare to other solutions ?
EWS Matrix (1)- Detection & Warning Capabilities CheckLights AquaVerity Other Biomonitors Multi-ParameterFactor One million luminescent bacteria 5-20 live organisms5-6 sensorsMethod Wide range of contaminants, including unknown types.5-6 parametersDetection spectrum Yes NoDetermines toxicity YesNo Discrimination between organic & heavy metals Contaminants High Medium (depends on the parameter) Detection sensitivity Yes, by using the portable detectors NoPartialContamination Boundaries assessment
EWS Matrix (2)- Implementation CheckLights AquaVerity Other BiomonitorsMulti-ParameterFactor Very simple to install & maintain. Unattended operation. Complex & requires on going human supervision Complex due to variability of sensors used Installation & maintenance Minimal adjustment needed.Complex Adjustment to changing water environment Wide distribution possible due to simple installation, minimal training & maintenance. Limited distribution due to complexity & costs Limited to wide distribution. Depends on parameters mix & complexity Effective coverage in large water networks Effort is minimal - reagents replacement once a month. Complex - Requires skilled personnel & special training Medium – requires skills & training On-Going usage Very high. Includes built-in control mechanism. Low to Medium. Depends on biota used & environment. conditions Medium. Depends on parameters used. Overall reliability Upgrade re-fill kits with enhanced detection capabilities UnknownunknownFuture Enhancements
EWS Matrix (3) - Cost Effectiveness CheckLights AquaVerity Other BiomonitorsMulti-ParameterFactor MediumMedium to very highLow to very high Depending on chosen parameters Initial capital investment Low due to minimal intervention High due to the required human supervision Medium due to complexity of sensors arrays and baseline build up On going costs Low to mediumHighMedium to highTotal cost of ownership
Positioning Sensitive to a broad range of contamination sources Reliable Cost effective Easy to operate Customer oriented
Unique Selling Points Broad detection capabilities – range & sensitivity Customer friendly – easy to install, operate & maintain Reliable – minimum false positives & negatives Very cost effective for broad EWS implementation
CCB vs ToxControl Microlan ToxControl CheckLight CCB-TOX Feature Low-mediumVery high Sensitivity NOYES Discrimination between organic toxicants and cationic heavy metals Low-mediumHigh Repeatability YESNO Needs adjustment to chlorinated water 30 minutes5-15 minutes Measuring cycle NOYES UPS installed & adjusted 16-20 hrs~15 minutes Operational down-time per month MediumLow Required skills for maintenance Once in 7 daysOnce in 4 weeks Reagents re-fill frequency LongShort Set up time Confidential – for internal use only
IC50 examples (mg/L) Microlan ToxControl CheckLight CCB-TOX Tested chemical 7.80.09 Arsenic (5) 200.24 Cadmium (2) 15.30.07 Chromium (6) 70.05 DDT 0.070.014 Mercury 0.70.06 Pentachlorophenol Confidential – for internal use only
ToxControl – Key weaknesses (1) No discrimination between heavy metals and organic contaminants. Long measurement cycle – slow response time. Hundreds of liters per week are required for reference water. Management software is very limited. No 3 rd party integration. Complex and lengthy reagents preparations. Customer requires a bio-reactor (which is +30% cost on top) with special media. Confidential – for internal use only
ToxControl – Key weaknesses (2) Down time is too long for on-line system. Weekly maintenance. Manual cleaning. Requires large space for installation. Too expensive (total cost is +50% than other solutions). Conclusion: not practical as a key element of a real Early Warning solution where broad deployment including in remote locations is required. Confidential – for internal use only