# PHYSICS Unit 2:. OBSERVE for relationships QUESTION everything TEST out hypotheses INTERPRET Data COMMUNICATE results.

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PHYSICS Unit 2:

OBSERVE for relationships QUESTION everything TEST out hypotheses INTERPRET Data COMMUNICATE results

Taneekwa drives an eighteen wheeler into a tunnel. As the truck passes into the tunnel, she hears a great groaning sound above. She gets out, looks up, and sees that the truck didn’t have enough clearance to pass cleanly into the tunnel and is now stuck. Taneekwa drives an eighteen wheeler into a tunnel. As the truck passes into the tunnel, she hears a great groaning sound above. She gets out, looks up, and sees that the truck didn’t have enough clearance to pass cleanly into the tunnel and is now stuck.

Taneekwa calculates that she needs only a few centimeters of clearance to be able to pass cleanly through without hitting the tunnel cieling. Taneekwa calculates that she needs only a few centimeters of clearance to be able to pass cleanly through without hitting the tunnel cieling. Is there any "quick fix" way Taneekwa can get out of this fix?

Its in OFF but not ON Its in COOL but not COLD Its in KITTEN but not CAT Its in WALL but not CEILING Its in PEPPER but not SALT Its in TALL but not SHORT Its in KNEE but not ELBOW Its in OFF but not ON Its in COOL but not COLD Its in KITTEN but not CAT Its in WALL but not CEILING Its in PEPPER but not SALT Its in TALL but not SHORT Its in KNEE but not ELBOW What is it?

Sam, the truck driver drove a huge oil rig (18-wheeler) from Massachusetts to California. Not once did Sam use the men’s room during the entire 3,000 mile trip. The rig was not equipped with a toilet. How is this possible?

In a small town in the U. S., a teenage boy asks his parents if he can go to a friend’s party. His parents agree provided that he is back before sunrise. He leaves the house clean- shaven that evening and when he returns just before the following sunrise his parents see he has grown a full beard. How is that possible?

1. CLAY: POTTER car: mechaniccar: mechanic stone: sculptorstone: sculptor cloth: tailorcloth: tailor chalk: teacherchalk: teacher 1. CLAY: POTTER car: mechaniccar: mechanic stone: sculptorstone: sculptor cloth: tailorcloth: tailor chalk: teacherchalk: teacher S.A.T. ANALOGIES

2. CRACK: WHIP music: guitarmusic: guitar murmur: crowdmurmur: crowd meow: catmeow: cat slam: doorslam: door S.A.T. ANALOGIES

3. (a. 0, b. 4, c. 7, d. 14) : 2 as neutral : acid 4. bicycle : (a. motorcycle, b. car, c. sailboat, d. skateboard) as rowboat : canoe

5. nibble : snack as (a. consume, b. gorge, c. diet, d. gnaw) : feast (a. consume, b. gorge, c. diet, d. gnaw) : feast 6. A.W.O.L. : soldier as (a. expelled, b. tardy, c. truant, d. suspended) : student (a. expelled, b. tardy, c. truant, d. suspended) : student S.A.T. ANALOGIES

Look at the following image very quickly and write down what you see.

Question: How many "f’s" are in the following text? "FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS"

"If you have ever read two eye-witness accounts of an auto accident, it makes you wonder about history."

since human observation is flawed… INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION: EX: the whole class is asked to look at the optical illusion, not just one observer. REPEATED PERFORMANCE: EX: the illusion would have to be flashed up several times before the correct observation is seen.

Proportions

Changes in Body Form & Proportion

Kinds of Proportion Direct Proportion- as one quantity changes (increase/ decrease), the other one changes in the same direction Inverse Proportion – as one quantity changes (increase/decrease), the other one changes in the opposite direction

Directly proportional or inversely proportional? The number of kids Mr. Akin stops for fast- walking to lunch Monday vs. The number of kids that fast walk to lunch Tuesday

Directly proportional or inversely proportional? The number of girl/boyfriends you have vs. The amount of free time you have

Directly proportional or inversely proportional? The number of girl/boyfriends you have vs. The number of kids that fast walk to lunch Tuesday

Direct Proportion Statement QuantityA  QuantityB # of A’s you get on your report card  Gs. your parents give you as a prize

inverse Proportion Statement QuantityA  # of A’s you get on your report card  # of hours of partying you did that quarter 1 Quantity B

From Proportion to Equation # of fights Mike Tyson fights Amt. of \$ Mike Tyson makes 

From Proportion to Equation MoneyFights  MoneyFights  MF = k k Proportionality Constant

To determine the Proportionality Constant… Ask yourself: How much money (y-value) does Mike Tyson get for every fight (x-value) that he fights? Look at the Units… Ask yourself: How much money (y-value) does Mike Tyson get for every fight (x-value) that he fights? Look at the Units… \$fight 2,000,000

Clue for determining “k” # of comput. virus attacks = # of porn websites visited k y = k x viruses website 27 y  x 0.29

Determine reasonable proportionality constants for the following: Number of ASA students Number of ASA teachers

Determine reasonable proportionality constants for the following: Km traveled by a Porsche 911 Time elapsed (in hours)

Determine reasonable proportionality constants for the following: Number of students eating Kilos of asado needed

S C I E N C E: Looks inward, goes from the real to the ideal. Uses analogies to explain abstract realities. Relies on faith. At its deepest levels, deals with invisibles: probabilities, subatomic particles, principles, laws, theories.

r e l i g i o n Looks upward, goes from the ideal to the real. Looks upward, goes from the ideal to the real. Uses analogies to explain abstract realities. Uses analogies to explain abstract realities. Relies on faith. Relies on faith. At its deepest levels, deals with invisibles: God, principles of living harmoniously, the soul, life after death. At its deepest levels, deals with invisibles: God, principles of living harmoniously, the soul, life after death. r e l i g i o n Looks upward, goes from the ideal to the real. Uses analogies to explain abstract realities. Relies on faith. At its deepest levels, deals with invisibles: God, principles of living harmoniously, the soul, life after death.

Socrates Zeno Epicurius Pythagoras Diogenes Euclid Zoroaster

Science without religion is blind. Religion without science is lame. -Albert Einstein Science without religion is blind. Religion without science is lame. -Albert Einstein

The Great Moon Hoax FOX television broadcast a conspiracy theory special that the U. S. mission to land on the moon never happenend. The “experts” on the program gave several examples of evidence as to why they believed that the whole trip was fake and the images that we saw were fabricated on Earth… Can you uncover the truth behind the images?

COUNTERATTACK: There was a video camera mounted and extended from the side of the landing module especially for this purpose. NASA anticipated that the moment that Armstrong stepped onto the Moon would be thought as being particularly significant and something everyone would want to see. As Armstrong started down the ladder he remotely deployed it, swinging it out from its storage position in the side of the module. REASON 5: If Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon, then who took his picture?

REASON 2: Why isn’t there any dust on the lunar lander legs if supposedly much dust was disturbed from the surface by the landing thrusters? COUNTERATTACK: Dust does not float in a vacuum. The only reason it 'floats' on Earth is because of the air that surrounds it. In a vacuum dust behaves exactly like any other object. You throw it up and it will then fall. It is no different from what a rock would do. The dust gets blow away and settles away from the lander in a roughly uniform circle.

REASON 3: Why aren’t the shadows pointing in the same direction if there are no clouds on the moon and the only light source is the sun? COUNTERATTACK: In the first image, the astronaut on the left is on an incline. The shadow is not pointing to the right; it is pointing downwards. In the second image, the idea is that the horizon line matches up with the yellow line. If the yellow lines were correct, then the shadows should line up but they aren't. The horizontal line in the background is just guesswork. We just can't tell for sure from this distance on a 2D image.

REASON 4: Why does the flag appear to be blowing in the wind if there is no atmos- phere on the moon? COUNTERATTACK: Firstly the flag had a horizontal bar attached to it at the top. This was done so that the flag would stand out from the flagpole. NASA appreciated that there would be no wind on the moon, so any normal flag would just hang limply and unattractively down the pole. The bar was also not quite the full width of the flag, so that it was slightly furled to give a 'wave look' to it.

REASON 5: If there is no atmos- phere on the moon, why don’t we see a sky full of stars in the pictures? COUNTERATTACK: There's really no different between the sky on the Moon and the sky during day time on Earth. The fact that the sky on Earth is blue because of the atmosphere and it is black on the Moon makes no difference. You cannot see stars during the day. The lunar surface is very bright. In comparison to this bright surface, the stars are very dim. It is very difficult to get a photograph of a very dim object and a very bright object at the same time. A camera set to take a photograph of a bright object (using a fast exposure), won't capture the dim object at all.

OBSERVE for relationships QUESTION everything TEST out hypotheses INTERPRET Data COMMUNICATE results

Perennial Questions 1. If man evolved from monkeys and apes, why do we still have monkeys and apes? 2. Could it be that all those trick-or-treaters wearing sheets aren't going as ghosts but as mattresses? 3. If a mute swears, does his mother wash his hands with soap?

4. If a man is standing in the middle of the forest speaking and there is no woman around to hear him, is he still wrong? 5. If someone with multiple personalities threatens to kill himself, is it considered a hostage situation? Perennial Questions

6. Why is there no other word for synonym? 7. Isn't it a bit unnerving that doctors call what they do "practice?“ 8. What do you do when you see an endangered animal eating an endangered plant? Perennial Questions

9. Why don't sheep shrink when it rains? 10. Why do we turn down the volume of our car radios when we are looking for a house in a neighborhood? 11. If the police arrest a mute person, do they tell him he has the right to remain silent? Perennial Questions

12. How is it possible to have a “civil” war? 13. Why did Kamikaze pilots wear helmets in WWII? 14. If you try to fail, and succeed, which have you done? 15. Whose cruel idea was it for the word "Lisp" to have an “s" in it? Perennial Questions

OBSERVE for relationships QUESTION everything TEST out hypotheses INTERPRET Data COMMUNICATE results

What kind of test could you do? You are an inspector from the Ministry of Agriculture and you do a night raid on a suspicious wildlife estancia to do a count of animals for tax purposes. It seems that the estancia was tipped off because all the ostriches and zebras on the farm are locked up in the barn, the lights are off, the capataz says he doesn’t have a key to the barn door, and that the farm owner is not there. There is no way into the barn but you are able to peek through small holes in the wall boards and are able to see the silhouettes of many animal heads and animal feet. Although you cannot distinguish if they are ostriches or zebras, you can still count them. You think and then say Eureka! What is your solution?

A student wants to find out what other students think about having an ASA dress code. He does a survey of all of high school. What is the difference (if any) between the following survey questions: What kind of test could you do? Do you like the current dress code? Do you like the current dress code? Do you want a school uniform? Do you want a school uniform? Do you believe that an ASA student should dress the way s/he wants as long as it is not vulgar or indecent? Do you believe that an ASA student should dress the way s/he wants as long as it is not vulgar or indecent?

INTERPRET Data OBSERVE for relationships QUESTION everything TEST out hypotheses COMMUNICATE results

"There are 15 million secret alcoholics in the United States." "Every cigarette you smoke takes 10 minutes off your life span." "Every day eight tons of pet waste are deposited on the streets of New York City."PSEUDO-STATISTICS: Explain what is wrong with the following statements:

PSEUDO- STATISTICS: Angelina Jolie believes that Congress is not spending enough money on the homeless. "Tests by three major universities indicate…" "Most students at ASA believe that…" "Fifty two percent of those surveyed indicated that…"

Examine the following visual that accompanied a story about the sky-rocketing cost of tutition for students enrolling at ASA. Is there something misleading about the visual?

4480 4470 4460 4450 4440 4430 4420 4410 4400

MOON WRECK You are in a space crew originally scheduled to rendezvous with a mother ship on the lighted surface of the moon. Mechanical difficulties, however, have forced your ship to crash-land at a spot some 200 km from the rendezvous point. You are in a space crew originally scheduled to rendezvous with a mother ship on the lighted surface of the moon. Mechanical difficulties, however, have forced your ship to crash-land at a spot some 200 km from the rendezvous point.

The rough landing damaged much of the equipment aboard. Since survival depends on reaching the mother ship, the most critical items available on the ship must be chosen for the 200 km trip. Rank them in terms of their importance to your crew in its attempt to reach the rendezvous point. The rough landing damaged much of the equipment aboard. Since survival depends on reaching the mother ship, the most critical items available on the ship must be chosen for the 200 km trip. Rank them in terms of their importance to your crew in its attempt to reach the rendezvous point. MOON WRECK

Place the number 1 by the most important item; 2 by the second most important, and so on... MOON WRECK

matches Oxygen Tanks Solar-power FM radio 50 m of rope Lunar map self-inflat. life raft Water supply Magnetic Compass Parachute Space Suit First Aid kit signal flares 0.45 caliber pistol food supply Portable Heating Unit

COMMUNICATE results OBSERVE for relationships QUESTION everything TEST out hypotheses INTERPRET Data

“Let’s just cut out all the talk and exchange body fluids.”

PICKUP LINES I wish I could bring you a rose so it could see how beautiful you are. I wish I could bring you a rose so it could see how beautiful you are. Stop, drop, and roll baby, 'cause you're on fire! Stop, drop, and roll baby, 'cause you're on fire! Do you have a sunburn baby or are you always this hot? Do you have a sunburn baby or are you always this hot? Baby if you were words on a piece of paper you'd be what they call fine print. Baby if you were words on a piece of paper you'd be what they call fine print. Is it hot in here or is it just you? Is it hot in here or is it just you?

Can I have your picture? I want Santa Claus to know exactly what I want for Christmas Can I have your picture? I want Santa Claus to know exactly what I want for Christmas "There is a phone call for you?" How do you know its for me? "Because they asked to speak to the best looking guy/gal in the room." "There is a phone call for you?" How do you know its for me? "Because they asked to speak to the best looking guy/gal in the room." If looks were against the law you'd be arrested, booked, and jailed for life. If looks were against the law you'd be arrested, booked, and jailed for life. PICKUP LINES

Do you believe in love at first sight or should I walk by again? Do you believe in love at first sight or should I walk by again? I hope you know CPR, because you take my breath away. I hope you know CPR, because you take my breath away. If I could rearrange the alphabet I'd put U and I together. If I could rearrange the alphabet I'd put U and I together. You know, you might be asked to leave soon. You're making the other guys look pretty bad. You know, you might be asked to leave soon. You're making the other guys look pretty bad.

FACT- close agreement by competent observers of a series of observations of the same phenomena FACT- close agreement by competent observers of a series of observations of the same phenomena HYPOTHESIS- an educated guess about the answer to a problem HYPOTHESIS- an educated guess about the answer to a problem LAW OR PRINCIPLE- well-tested hypotheses which have not been contradicted. LAW OR PRINCIPLE- well-tested hypotheses which have not been contradicted. THEORY- a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested & verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world. THEORY- a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested & verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world. Fine shades of gray

MATCHING: THEORY? FACT? HYPOTH.? LAW? __ 1. Oranges are orange. __ 1. Oranges are orange. __ 2. Oranges are orange because the pigment in the skin of the orange reflects orange light to the eye. __ 2. Oranges are orange because the pigment in the skin of the orange reflects orange light to the eye. __ 3. All oranges are citrus fruits. __ 3. All oranges are citrus fruits. __ 4. Oranges are nutritious because they contain large amounts of vitamin C, are low in fat, low in calories, high in fiber __ 4. Oranges are nutritious because they contain large amounts of vitamin C, are low in fat, low in calories, high in fiber a. law a. law b. hypoth. b. hypoth. c. theory c. theory d. fact

HYPOTHESES: SCIENTIFIC or NOT? 1. Atoms are the smallest particles in the universe. 2. 90% of all rapes go unreported. 3. 40% of men are secretly homosexual. 4. Albert Einstein is the greatest physicist of all time. 5. Adam had a belly button.

Extra-terrestrial life exists in the universe There is no extra- terrestrial life in the universe Extra-terrestrial life exists in the universe There is no extra- terrestrial life in the universe Which is Scientific?

How can you measure the reaction time of a classmate with a ruler?

Write directions for performing the reaction time experiment with the ruler. Make sure a 5 th grader could understand them. assignment

Using Units Science is about precision and accuracy. Using units allows scientists to be both. PRECISE ACCURATE not

Unit conversion

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