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© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Risk Management: An Introduction to Financial Engineering Chapter Twenty- Three.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Risk Management: An Introduction to Financial Engineering Chapter Twenty- Three."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Risk Management: An Introduction to Financial Engineering Chapter Twenty- Three

2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Key Concepts and Skills Understand the types of volatility that companies can manage Understand how to develop risk profiles Understand the difference between forward contracts and futures contracts and how they are used for hedging Understand how swaps can be used for hedging Understand how options can be used for hedging

3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter Outline Hedging and Price Volatility Managing Financial Risk Hedging with Forward Contracts Hedging with Futures Contracts Hedging with Swap Contracts Hedging with Option Contracts

4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Example: Disneys Risk Management Policy Disney provides stated policies and procedures concerning risk management strategies in its annual report –The company tries to manage exposure to interest rates, foreign currency, and the fair market value of certain investments –Interest rate swaps are used to manage interest rate exposure –Options and forwards are used to manage foreign exchange risk in both assets and anticipated revenues –Derivative securities are used only for hedging, not speculation

5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hedging Volatility Recall that volatility in returns is a classic measure of risk Volatility in day-to-day business factors often leads to volatility in cash flows and returns If a firm can reduce that volatility, it can reduce its business risk Instruments have been developed to hedge the following types of volatility –Interest Rate –Exchange Rate –Commodity Price

6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Interest Rate Volatility Debt is a key component of a firms capital structure Interest rates can fluctuate dramatically in short periods of time Companies that hedge against changes in interest rates can stabilize borrowing costs This can reduce the overall risk of the firm Available tools: forwards, futures, swaps, futures options and options

7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Exchange Rate Volatility Companies that do business internationally are exposed to exchange rate risk The more volatile the exchange rates, the more difficult it is to predict the firms cash flows in its domestic currency If a firm can manage its exchange rate risk, it can reduce the volatility of its foreign earnings and do a better analysis of future projects Available tools: forwards, futures, swaps, futures options

8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Commodity Price Volatility Most firms face volatility in the costs of materials and in the price that will be received when products are sold Depending on the commodity, the company may be able to hedge price risk using a variety of tools This allows companies to make better production decisions and reduce the volatility in cash flows Available tools (depend on type of commodity): forwards, futures, swaps, futures options, options

9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Risk Management Process Identify the types of price fluctuations that will impact the firm Some risks are obvious, others are not Some risks may offset each other, so it is important to look at the firm as a portfolio of risks and not just look at each risk separately You must also look at the cost of managing the risk relative to the benefit derived Risk profiles are a useful tool for determining the relative impact of different types of risk

10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Risk Profiles Basic tool for identifying and measuring exposure to risk Graph showing the relationship between changes in price versus changes in firm value Similar to graphing the results from a sensitivity analysis The steeper the slope of the risk profile, the greater the exposure and the more a firm needs to manage that risk

11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Reducing Risk Exposure The goal of hedging is to lessen the slope of the risk profile Hedging will not normally reduce risk completely –Only price risk can be hedged, not quantity risk –You may not want to reduce risk completely because you miss out on the potential upside as well Timing –Short-run exposure (transactions exposure) – can be managed in a variety of ways –Long-run exposure (economic exposure) – almost impossible to hedge, requires the firm to be flexible and adapt to permanent changes in the business climate

12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Forward Contracts A contract where two parties agree on the price of an asset today to be delivered and paid for at some future date Forward contracts are legally binding on both parties They can be tailored to meet the needs of both parties and can be quite large in size Positions –Long – agrees to buy the asset at the future date –Short – agrees to sell the asset at the future date Because they are negotiated contracts and there is no exchange of cash initially, they are usually limited to large, creditworthy corporations

13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 23.7

14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hedging with Forwards Entering into a forward contract can virtually eliminate the price risk a firm faces –It does not completely eliminate risk unless there is no uncertainty concerning the quantity Because it eliminates the price risk, it prevents the firm from benefiting if prices move in the companys favor The firm also has to spend some time and/or money evaluating the credit risk of the counterparty Forward contracts are primarily used to hedge exchange rate risk

15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Futures Contracts Forward contracts traded on an organized securities exchange Require an upfront cash payment called margin –Small relative to the value of the contract –Marked-to-market on a daily basis Clearinghouse guarantees performance on all contracts The clearinghouse and margin requirements virtually eliminate credit risk

16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Futures Quotes See Table 23.1 Commodity, exchange, size, quote units –The contract size is important when determining the daily gains and losses for marking-to-market Delivery month –Open price, daily high, daily low, settlement price, change from previous settlement price, contract lifetime high and low prices, open interest –The change in settlement price times the contract size determines the gain or loss for the day Long – an increase in the settlement price leads to a gain Short – an increase in the settlement price leads to a loss –Open interest is how many contracts are currently outstanding

17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hedging with Futures The risk reduction capabilities of futures is similar to that of forwards The margin requirements and marking-to-market require an upfront cash outflow and liquidity to meet any margin calls that may occur Futures contracts are standardized, so the firm may not be able to hedge the exact quantity it desires Credit risk is virtually nonexistent Futures contracts are available on a wide range of physical assets, debt contracts, currencies and equities

18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Swaps A long-term agreement between two parties to exchange cash flows based on specified relationships Can be viewed as a series of forward contracts Generally limited to large creditworthy institutions or companies Interest rate swaps – the net cash flow is exchanged based on interest rates Currency swaps – two currencies are swapped based on specified exchange rates or foreign vs. domestic interest rates

19 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Example: Interest Rate Swap Consider the following interest rate swap –Company A can borrow from a bank at 8% fixed or LIBOR + 1% floating (borrows fixed) –Company B can borrow from a bank at 9.5% fixed or LIBOR +.5% (borrows floating) –Company A prefers floating and Company B prefers fixed –By entering into the swap agreements, both A and B are better off then they would be borrowing from the bank and the swap dealer makes.5% PayReceiveNet Company ALIBOR +.5%8.5%-LIBOR Swap Dealer w/A8.5%LIBOR +.5% Company B9%LIBOR +.5%-9% Swap Dealer w/BLIBOR +.5%9% Swap Dealer NetLIBOR + 9%LIBOR + 9.5%+.5%

20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 23.10

21 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Option Contracts The right, but not the obligation, to buy (sell) an asset for a set price on or before a specified date –Call – right to buy the asset –Put – right to sell the asset –Exercise or strike price –specified price –Expiration date – specified date Buyer has the right to exercise the option, the seller is obligated –Call – option writer is obligated to sell the asset if the option is exercised –Put – option writer is obligated to buy the asset if the option is exercised Unlike forwards and futures, options allow a firm to hedge downside risk, but still participate in upside potential Pay a premium for this benefit

22 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Payoff Profiles: Calls

23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Payoff Profiles: Puts

24 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hedging Commodity Price Risk with Options Commodity options are generally futures options Exercising a call –Owner of call receives a long position in the futures contract plus cash equal to the difference between the exercise price and the futures price –Seller of call receives a short position in the futures contract and pays cash equal to the difference between the exercise price and the futures price Exercising a put –Owner of put receives a short position in the futures contract plus cash equal to the difference between the futures price and the exercise price –Seller of put receives a long position in the futures contract and pays cash equal to the difference between the futures price and the exercise price

25 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hedging Exchange Rate Risk with Options May use either futures options on currency or straight currency options Used primarily by corporations that do business overseas US companies want to hedge against a strengthening dollar (receive fewer dollars when you convert foreign currency back to dollars) Buy puts (sell calls) on foreign currency –Protected if the value of the foreign currency falls relative to the dollar –Still benefit if the value of the foreign currency increases relative to the dollar –Buying puts is less risky

26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hedging Interest Rate Risk with Options Can use futures options Large OTC market for interest rate options Caps, Floors, and Collars –Interest rate cap prevents a floating rate from going above a certain level (buy a call on interest rates) –Interest rate floor prevents a floating rate from going below a certain level (sell a put on interest rates) –Collar – buy a call and sell a put The premium received from selling the put will help offset the cost of buying a call If set up properly, the firm will not have either a cash inflow or outflow associated with this position

27 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Quick Quiz What are the four major types of derivatives discussed in the chapter? How do forwards and futures differ? How are they similar? How do swaps and forwards differ? How are they similar? How do options and forwards differ? How are they similar?


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