Presentation on theme: "In-service training programme for English Language teachers"— Presentation transcript:
1 In-service training programme for English Language teachers (Grades 1-11) in the context of the updated curriculumfor 11 years’ comprehensive school education in theRepublic of KazakhstanPresenter’s NameMONTH 2014
2 Trainer introductionPhoto should be inserted hereTrainer Name
3 Introduction to 20 days of training Days 1 to 4overview of the updated curriculum, its structure, the necessary pedagogy for it to be effective and the criteria-based assessment mechanismDays 5 to 20subject-specific aspects of the curriculum (active and practical)micro-teachingself-reflection and meta-cognitive tasksTiming of sessions, breaks, fire drills, mobile phones etc.
4 Background to the training Kazakhstan’s 2050 visionPrepare learners for future challengesKazakhstan aims to become one of the leading countries in high quality education:- outcomes-based curriculum- pedagogical approach- assessment model
6 Day 1 Training objectives (1) Introductions from trainer and from teachersTeachers understand the schedule for trainingTo introduce key terminology and documentation of the updated curriculumTo begin to know the content and coverage of the updated curriculum
7 Day 1 Training objectives (2) To be more aware of the content of the subject programmes and course planTo understand that content has been removed from the current curriculum to allow time for the development of skillsTo recognise the need for updated teaching strategiesTo know how to support language learningTo be introduced to the term ‘spiral curriculum’
8 Day 1 Overview Session 1 Introduction to the training Session 2 The updated curriculumSession 3Structure of subject programme and course plansSession 4Language development
9 Day 1 Session 1 – Introduction to the training: session overview IntroductionsCourse aims and structureWhat I know and what I want to learnPriorities
10 Day 1 Session 1 – teacher introductions Introduce yourself to a partner/the whole groupInclude at least one interesting piece of informationIf you could magically acquire one new skill, what would it be?What have you never done that you would like to do?Which adjective best describes your character?10
11 Day 1 Session 1 – In-service training programme Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS) were introduced in 2011NIS have established trilingual schools following an updated curriculum and assessment modelThey have also implemented innovative educational practicesCoE to transfer am updated curriculum, assessment model and educational practices based on NIS modelThere are three phases of implementation for language subjects
12 Day 1 Session 1 – In-service training programme The objectives of this year’s in-service training programme are:to support educational renewal in schoolsto introduce a updated curriculum, adapted from the NIS curriculum, starting from Grade 1 from September 2016to introduce updatded subject programmes for key subjects into the existing secondary school curriculum from September 2016to introduce a new criteria-based assessment model for the updated primary curriculum and key secondary curriculum subjects
13 Day 1 Session 1 – In-service training programme Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS) were introduced in 2011NIS have established trilingual schools following a updated curriculum and assessment modelThey have also implemented innovative educational practicesCoE to transfer an updated curriculum, assessment model and educational practices based on NIS modelThere are three phases of implementation for language subjects
14 Day 1 Session 1 – Aims of this course To enable the successful implementation of the updated curriculumTo ensure teachers are familiar with the updated curriculumTo support outstanding teaching and learning
15 Day 1 Session 1 – Course structure Theme of day1Introduction to the updated curriculum11Secondary listening and speaking2Effective teaching and learning12Developing resources3Assessment13Progression and achievement4Delivering the updated curriculum: planning and resources14Planning language lessons5Language skills 15Engaging learners6Primary listening and speaking skills16Review of primary resources7Primary reading and writing skills178Language classroom management18Planning and delivering lessons9Developing learner language awareness1910Secondary reading and writing skills20Key concept review
16 Day 1 Session 1 – Overview of days 1 to 4 Introduction to the updated curriculumDay 2Effective teaching and learningDay 3AssessmentDay 4Delivering the updated curriculum: planning and resources
17 What I want to learn handout (individual) Priorities (whole group feedback)Any outstanding questions?Next session
19 Day 1 Session 2 – The updated curriculum: session overview Key curriculum terms and documentsBegin to know content, coverage
20 All subjects in updated curriculum PrimarySecondaryHigh
21 Three phases of implementation For language subjects there will be 3 phases of subject programme implementationG1G2G3G4G5G6G7G8G9G10G11G12Number of SPs in use1234Updated Grade 1-12Curriculum
22 Making connections between key documents: subject programmes, course plans and assessment guidance Learning objectivesSuggested activities based on learning objectivesCourse PlansSupports decisions regarding Formative Assessment of learning objectivesGuidance for Formative Assessment
23 Day 1 Session 2 – Subject programme contents (1) Part 1: General information1.1 The importance of the subject in the curriculum1.2 The aims of the subject programme1.3 Implementation of the trilingual policy1.4 Description of the organisational requirements for thesubject1.5 Pedagogic approaches for the subject
24 Day 1 Session 2 – Subject programme contents (2) Part 1: General information (continued)1.6 Developing respect for diversity of culture and opinion inthe subject1.7 Competence in the use of digital technologies in thesubject1.8 Developing communication skills in the subject1.9 Approaches to assessment in the subjectPart 2: Content2.1 Subject programme content, organisation and progression
25 Day 1 Session 2 – Course plans: sections Long-term planIntroduction to language objectivesMedium-term planShort-term lesson plan
27 Day 1 Session 3 – Structure of subject programme and course plans: session overview Analysis of subject programme and course plansGroup discussion and whole group feedback‘Spiral curriculum’
28 Analysis of subject programme Four columns handoutAnalysis of course planFour columns handout
29 Day 1 Session 3 – Spiral curriculum Topics are revisited, sometimes within and across termsTopics should be taught in greater depth each timeLevel of difficulty should increase29
30 End of Session 3What we have just covered, what we will cover next
31 Day 1 Session 4 – Language development: session overview The importance of communication in the updated curriculumLanguage support in course plan unitsWriting a language objective for a lesson
32 Day 1 Session 4 – The importance of communication Why do you think teachers need to support language learning?How can we do this?
33 Day 1 Session 4 – Subject programme: communication in the curriculum From the subject programmes:Education Organizations of the Republic of Kazakhstan build the base of communicative competence of learners with the aim to develop functional literacy. (Section 1.3)In order to support the learning of content subject matter, subject teachers also support the learning of subject-specific academic language. (Section 1.5)Throughout the curriculum, learners will be encouraged to communicate in both oral and written forms with their fellow learners, teachers and wider audiences using a range of media and academic language with accuracy. (Section 1.8)
34 How do the course plans help to provide language support? Day 1 Session 4 – Subject programme: summary of communication in the curriculumTo provide language support:introduce and use subject-specific vocabularyencourage learners to actively use all four skills:reading writing speaking listeningHow do the course plans help to provide language support?34
35 Day 1 Session 4 – How can you provide language support? During the lesson:state the language objectivewrite key words on the board and pre-teach themuse all four skillsAt the end of the lesson:review progress against the language objectivegive feedback on language and communication as well as content35
36 Day 1 Session 4 – Writing language objectives Write and share a language objective for a course plan lesson.Subject: ……. Grade: …….Lesson subject objective:…Outline of teaching activity:Language objective:Subject-specific vocabulary:Useful classroom language for dialogue/writing:36
37 Day 1 Plenary Review of Day 1 Preview of Day 2: Effective teaching and learningCharacteristics of effective teaching and learningActive learning (1)Active learning (2)Learning environmentSelf-evaluation form
39 Day 2 Training objectives To be aware of the characteristics of effective teaching and learningTo know the pedagogical approach to be taken as identified in the subject programmesTo participate in an active learning activityTo understand what active learning isTo incorporate active learning principles into teaching activitiesTo know that learning should be objective led, not activity driven
40 Day 2 Training objectives To know what an effective learning environment should be likeTo explore possibilities for display as a learning toolTo understand how to create and develop an interactive learning environment
41 Day 2 OverviewSession 1Characteristics of effective teaching and learningSession 2Active learning 1Session 3Active learning 2Session 4Learning environmentRecap on Day 1
42 Day 2 Session 1 – Characteristics of effective teaching and learning: session overview Discussing ideas for characteristicsMatching characteristics to classroom imagesThinking of examples of characteristics in own classroom
43 Day 2 Session 1 – What are the characteristics of effective teaching and learning? Discussion in pairsList five characteristics of effective teaching and learningShare ideas in small groups
44 Day 2 Session 1 – Some characteristics of effective teaching and learning In pairs, match these pictures to possible characteristics listed on the handoutBDAC
45 Day 2 Session 1 – Some characteristics of effective teaching and learning In pairs, match these pictures to possible characteristics listed on the handoutFGEGH
46 Day 2 Session 1 – 1 Active learning Learning from own experiences:Allows learners to experiment, construct meaning and develop understandingRelates new knowledge to existing knowledgeMaking mistakes makes us check and refine our understandingResults in deeper learningChanges attitudesPicture F
47 Day 2 Session 1 – 2 Collaborative learning Structured group work:Improves interpersonal and communication skillsImproves acquisition of information and higher-level thinking skillsPromotes positive interdependence – ‘we succeed together’Can break down barriers between learnersPicture B
48 Day 2 Session 1 – 3 Differentiation Meeting the individual learning needs of each learner:Increases progression of understanding and skillsImproves confidence and motivationStimulates creativity by helping learners to understand ideas betterBenefits all learnersCan raise expectations for all learnersPicture H
49 Day 2 Session 1 – 4 Cross-curricular links Creating links between subjects:Adds breadth and balance to the curriculumAllows deeper learningProvides a broader range of skillsCan help with progression of understanding and skillsCan help to put learning into a more meaningful contextCan make learning more motivatingPicture C
50 Day 2 Session 1 – 5 Responding to learners’ needs Checking learning and giving feedback to inform learning:Improves motivation and self- esteemGives direction to teachingProvides opportunities for learners to improve their workHelps learners to understand how to learn more effectivelyPicture A
51 Day 2 Session 1 – 6 Learning conversations Learners talking about a task:Gives learners more ownershipEncourages transfer of knowledge and skills between learnersEncourages deeper understandingProvides opportunities for learners to reflect on their progress and decide what to do nextChallenges and motivates learnerPicture D
52 Day 2 Session 1 – 7 Using e-learning and new technology Using technology:Offers exciting tools for active learningCan be motivatingCan be used to research, communicate, collaborate and createCan give learners more ownership of a task by allowing them to search for information and find their own toolsAllows opportunities for learning outside the classroomPicture G
53 Day 2 Session 1 – 8 Modelling An expert giving an example whilst explaining their accompanying thought processes:Exposes learners to subject content and expert thinking simultaneouslyBreaks a task into steps, allowing learners to become increasingly independentStimulates reflection on the processesPicture E
54 Day 2 Session 1 In pairs Whole group discussion How do these characteristics compare with the ‘Pedagogic approach’ section of the subject programme?Whole group discussionHow is the approach similar/different to what occurs in your schools now?What are the issues in implementing these approaches?How can we address these?Recap on Day 1
56 Day 2 Sessions 2 and 3 – Active learning: training objectives To participate in an active learning activity To understand what active learning isTo incorporate active learning principles into their own teaching activitiesTo know that learning should be objective led, not activity driven
57 Day 2 Session 2 – An active learner Group discussionWhat does an active learner look like?Label a picture of a person with key qualities andcharacteristicsShare with the whole group
58 What does an active teacher look like? Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacherWhat does an active teacher look like?
59 Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacher: Active learning principles 1 To enable progress:Repeat learning objectivesPresent different activitiesPractise skillsBuild on prior learning
60 Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacher: Active learning principles 2 To support learning:Promote curiosityAsk questionsExperimentSuggestInventTeach to learning styles
61 Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacher: Active learning principles 3 Make sure resources are:OrganisedAccessibleSharedFamiliarMadeUsed regularlyBuilt up over timeGood quality
62 Day 2 Session 2 – What is active learning? Different teaching strategies = an environment for learners to develop knowledge, skills and understandingI listen but I forget!I see and I believeI do then I understand!
63 Day 2 Session 2 – Using your senses to learn EarsEyesVoiceTouchXReceive informationApply learning
64 Day 2 Session 2 Active learning is … Learning by doing Having FUN learning!Active learning is …
66 Day 2 Session 3 – Training objectives To incorporate active learning principles into their own teaching activitiesTo know that learning should be objective led, not activity driven
67 Day 2 Session 3 – Using active learning in your own teaching IndividualsThink of a successful activity you have taught recentlySmall groupsShare your activities. Record aspects of active learningWhole groupShare some good examples of active learningWhat makes it a successful learning experience?
68 Day 2 Session 3 – 1. Why do we ask questions? Possible reasons To identify gaps in learningTo direct learner’s thinkingTo assessTo prompt further questionsTo revise a topicTo excite interest or curiosityTo challengeTo model questioning and thinkingTo help clarify understandingTo evaluate
69 2. What makes a good question? Day 2 Session 3 –2. What makes a good question?Open questions are more likely to improve learning. They encourage talking and thinkinge.g. Which metals are magnetic?Closed questions generate “yes”/“no” answers. They can be useful but are not good at encouraging talking and thinkinge.g. Is copper magnetic?
70 Day 3 Session 4 – 2. What makes a good question? General open questionsHow can we …?How did you …?What would happen if …?Tell me about …?What do you think about …?Complete the questions to make questions you might ask in your classroom
71 ? Day 3 Session 4 – 2. What makes a good question? Invert the question Instead of asking a question that requires factual recall, invert ite.g.Is copper a metal?… becomes …Why is copper a metal??
72 2. What makes a good question? Day 3 Session 4 –2. What makes a good question?X and YAsk learners why X is an example of Y, e.g.Why is an apple an example of a fruit?Why is a fox an example of a mammal?This sort of questioning requires more than factual recall – it asks for an explanation of learners’ reasoning.
73 Day 2 Session 3 – 3. Who asks the questions? Learners asking questions Create opportunities for learners to ask questions:ask the teacherask each othera ‘question box’ for written questions provides a different way for learners to be able to ask questions
74 4. How do you involve all learners in asking and answering questions? Day 2 Session 3 –4. How do you involve all learners in asking and answering questions?Consider asking questions such as:What do others think about _____’s idea?‘Bounce’ the question around the classroom …How could you develop ______’s answer to include more detail?Then ask the learner who gave the original idea …How can you combine all you have heard into a single answer?
75 5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions? Day 2 Session 3 –5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions?Incorrect answersUse incorrect answers as a discussion pointThis creates a classroom atmosphere in which it is okay to give an incorrect answer, and also encourages a ‘have a go’ attitude!That’s not quite right … let’s talk about it …
76 5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions? Day 2 Session 3 –5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions?Wait-timeAllow learners time to think:Teacher speaks and then waits before taking learners’ responsesWhen learner’s response ends, teacher waits before respondingThis gives learners time to give a better answer or for another learner to respondAllow a minimum of 5 seconds
77 6. How can you make your questioning effective? Day 2 Session 3 –6. How can you make your questioning effective?Plan questions in advance – this can make them more challengingFocus on a few carefully constructed open-ended questionsAsk one question at a timeAllow thinking timeVary question strategiesEnsure all learners have the opportunity to respondUse this slide to summarise the session
78 Day 2 Session 3 – Engaging starters for learners Video clipsPhotographsFilm clipsObjectsCartoonsPieces of musicQuestionsGamesPuzzles
80 Day 2 Session 4 – Learning environments: objectives To know what an effective learning environment should be likeTo explore possibilities for display as a learning toolTo understand how to create and develop an interactive learning environment
81 Day 2 Session 4 – Your classroom plan PairsHow does your classroom enhance opportunities for learning?Does your classroom need to be different for you to be able to deliver the updated Kazakhstan curriculum?How would it be organised? What needs to be included?
82 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 1 What do you like or dislike about this classroom?Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?
83 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 2 What do you like or dislike about this classroom?Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?
84 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 3 What do you like or dislike about this classroom?Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?
85 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 4 What do you like or dislike about this classroom?Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?
86 Day 2 Plenary Review of Day 2 Preview of Day 3: Key approaches in the updated curriculumCriteria-based assessment modelCross-curricular themesManaging active learnersEffective questioning
88 Day 3 Training objectives To introduce key assessment principlesTo introduce the purpose of the criteria-based assessment modelTo introduce Formative AssessmentTo consider how to use the results of Formative Assessment in your teachingTo introduce Internal Summative AssessmentTo consider how to ensure learners are prepared for Internal Summative Assessment and how to use the resultsTo discuss how CBA will impact on your teaching practice
89 Day 3 Overview Session 1 Principles of assessment Session 2 The Criteria-based Assessment model (CBA)Session 3Formative AssessmentSession 4Internal Summative AssessmentResources
90 Day 3 Session 1 – Principles of assessment: objectives To understand:Different types of assessmentPurposes of assessmentWhat makes a good assessment
91 What is assessment? The process of gathering evidence Then use defined criteria to judge performance based on the evidenceArrive at conclusion on performanceBring up slider headerAsk participnats to answer the question ‘what is assessment?’ individuallyShare their answers with a partnerBring up the three bullet points one by one and explain this is a process.
92 Criteria-based Assessment An assessment which is measured against common, defined criteriaCommon so all learners are judged to the same standardDefined so those assessing are clear what the standard is
93 Purposes of assessment What purposes of assessment are you aware of?Why do we assess people?Who is involved in or affected by the assessment?Discuss
94 Purposes of assessment university entranceprogression at schoolqualificationmotivateselectionmonitoring institutionsprogramme evaluationfeedbackquality assurance94
95 Who is involved in, affected by or interested in assessment Who is involved in, affected by or interested in assessment? Who are the stakeholders?Assessment
96 LearnersParentsSchoolsSchool administrationEmployersGovernmental decision-makersSociety as a wholeThe public’s view of education and learnersAny more ...?
97 Types of assessment Formative Summative Diagnostic assessment of learners during teaching and learningSummativeassessment of learningDiagnosticmeasures skills and knowledge to identify strengths and weaknesses
98 The Criteria-based Assessment Model Guidance for Formative AssessmentTest SpecificationsActivity: What are the differences between Formative and Internal Summative Assessment?
99 What makes a good assessment? Assesses what it is intended to assess (e.g. maths test that doesn’t test their knowledge of English)Follows the subject programme – tests what they have learntTests what is appropriate for the subjectClear and comprehensibleAt the appropriate levelFits into the time available
100 Fit for purpose – four key concepts V Validity R Reliability I Impact P Practicality
101 Ensuring validityThe assessment should test what it is supposed to testDefine what you want to testProduce clear specifications of what is to be assessedEnsure questions are fairEnsure marking/judgement making is accurate and reliableSeek feedback from learners and teachers
102 Ensuring reliabilityAssessment reflects the subject programme – and therefore what is being taughtAssessment is set against fixed criteria which are documented to ensure standard is maintainedYear on year assessment has the same outcomesMarking and judgement making – learner responses of the same quality should receive the same outcome – how to achieve thatTest administration should ensure no malpractice
103 Impact This is the effect the test has on: Teachers and learners ParentsTeaching and learningEducational systemsSociety in general
104 Practicality Issues of: Cost (initial development and maintenance) Management of the assessmentTest lengthEase/difficulty/cost of administrationEase of marking/judgement making
106 Day 3 Session 2 – The Criteria-based Assessment model: objectives To understand:the principles and purpose of the Criteria-based Assessment modelthe structure of the Criteria-based Assessment model
107 Overview of the Criteria-based Assessment model (Primary) Formative Assessment – ongoingInternal Summative Assessment – carried out at the end of each of the four terms. Not in Grade 1. End of term 4 only in Grade 2 but covering work from the whole year.
108 Overview of the Criteria-based Assessment model (Secondary)
109 The principles of the Criteria-based Assessment model Learning is assessed against common, shared criteriaAllows reliable, valid judgements to be madeResults can be compared between different classes, subjects and schoolsProvides evidence of the development of subject knowledge and skills for every learner
110 Features of the model: Integration TeachingAssessmentLearning
111 Subject Programme Course Plans Look at the example of Subject Progs and Course Plans in your workbook. What is the function of these documents and how do they differ?
112 Subject Programme Course Plans Assessment material From these curriculum documents assessment material is developed which focuses on the specific content
113 Internal Summative Assessment Subject ProgrammeCourse PlansFormative AssessmentInternal Summative AssessmentAssessment materialFrom these curriculum documents assessment material is developed which focuses on the specific content
114 Internal Summative Assessment Assessment Guidance Documents Subject ProgrammeCourse PlansFormative AssessmentInternal Summative AssessmentAssessment materialFrom these curriculum documents assessment material is developed which focuses on the specific contentAssessment Guidance DocumentsTest Specifications
115 Internal Summative Assessment Assessment Guidance Documents Subject ProgrammeCourse PlansFormative AssessmentInternal Summative AssessmentAssessment materialThe content of both of these forms of assessment are therefore based on the SP and CPs – making it an integrated system.Assessment Guidance DocumentsTest Specifications
116 Features of the model: School-based Schools are responsible for planning and implementing the assessmentsFormative Assessment (FA) – as part of normal teachingInternal Summative Assessment (ISA) – to check progress and learning at key pointsTeachers will be involved with the design and production of assessment material for both FA and ISA
117 Key skills for the 21st century Discuss what skills are relevant for today’s learnerDo you think learning factual knowledge alone is sufficient?Before bringing up the slide content ask parts to discuss:
118 Features of the model: 21st-century skills Critical thinkingProblem solvingIndependent learningEnquiryInformation handlingFeature of the model is that it aims to equip learners for life in 21st CCreating and designingPractical skillsCollaboration
119 Criterion-referencing Norm-referencing: compares a learner’s performance to the rest of the group either locally, nationally or internationallyCriterion-referencing: compares a learner’s performance to a Learning Outcome or performance standardSO criterion-referenced assessment is where an individual’s performance is compared to a specific Learning Outcome or performance standard and not to the performance of other learners
120 ‘A criteria-based assessment model compares learners’ achievements with clearly defined, collectively developed criteria, which are known to all participants of the process in advance.’
121 ‘Criteria-based assessment is fairer to learners than the traditional method applied in Kazakhstan.’
122 Summary – The purpose of the criteria-based assessment model Diversify approachesIncrease engagement and motivationIncorporate 21st century skillsDevelop teacher knowledge and skillIntegrate modern techniquesInform planningDemonstrate progression
124 Day 3 Session 3 - Formative Assessment: aims Identify evidence of achieving selected learning objectives (content and skills)Understand progress and needs of individual learnersInform teaching and learningProvide ongoing feedback for teachers and learners
125 Formative Assessment: terminology Success criteria: These describe how the teacher can decide which learners have ‘achieved’ the learning objective and which learners are ‘working towards’ the learning objective. This advice should support teachers in using their professional judgement to make these decisionsAssessment guidance: This is information to help teachers deliver Formative AssessmentSkills: These describe the range of skills that the learner is developing (thinking skills and subject-specific skills)
126 Formative Assessment: part of everyday teaching Learning objective (skills and content)Plan teaching and learning activitiesActive learningCourse planHave learners achieved the learning objective?Formative AssessmentAssessment guidance and success criteriaInform planningDifferentiationDeciding when to move onFeedback to learnersRecord resultsAchievedWorking Towards
127 Formative Assessment: method Assessments can use course plan activities or equivalent activities designed by the teacherAssessment guidance will help you decide how to collect evidenceSuccess criteria will help you decide whether a learner has ‘achieved’ or is ‘working towards’ a learning objectiveBrief learners before the activity so they understand the task and the success criteriaCollect evidence for portfolio (if appropriate)
128 Formative Assessment: Process Refer to the Assessment Guidance for Primary ScienceRefer to the Primary Science Grade 1 Course PlanArrange the learning objectivesProduce a planEach plan may be different for each teacher. So this process offers flexibility in what is taught and when.Handouts: assessment guidance and success criteria for the subject/grade.Requires cross-referencing between assessment guidance and course planThe suggested activities are in the course plan – teachers may adapt theseThe assessment guidance will help here – teachers may adapt this guidance if they are using different teaching approaches. Draw out that the evidence could be written, spoken, drawings, pictures etc.The teachers should refer to the success criteria.This links to the answers to (3). Make it clear portfolios should not contain every piece of work – only those that demonstrate progress. Portfolios can contain teacher observations.
129 Formative Assessment: using the assessments PairsThink again about your example of Formative Assessment. What would you do in each of these scenarios?A learner is ‘working towards’ the learning objective and does not understand why.Most of the class are ‘working towards’ the learning objective, but one learner has confidently ‘achieved’ it.Six learners are ‘working towards’ the learning objective and the rest of the class have ‘achieved’ it..
131 Day 3 Session 4 – Internal Summative Assessment and Reporting results To understand:the principles and purpose of Internal Summative Assessmenthow to report the results of Criteria-based Assessment to learners and parentshow to prepare for Criteria-based Assessment
132 Internal Summative Assessment – aim and content To provide evidence of achievement at the end of termDetailed information is in the ‘ISA test specification’ including:format of testlength of testnumber of marksbalance of questions against assessment objectivessample questions and mark schemeshow to administer the testTask from MoE material – what goes in a Test Spec document?
133 Internal Summative Assessment - format Format will be for the purpose of assessing subject reliably and with validity:Written tests – range of task typesSpeaking and Listening tests for languagesPractical tests for sciencesActivity tests for Art and other practical subjectsFor some subjects, the test specification may list allowable sources of information.
134 Overview of task types Multiple Choice Other objective responses (e.g. matching, selected response)Short answer questionsExtended response questionsEssaysProjects/CourseworkPerformance assessmentVery structuredStructuredUnstructuredVery unstructured2.2A broad list of task types shown here from the very structured, e.g. multiple choice – where there is only one expected response and the question is very focused, through to performance assessment, e.g. where a discussion might be observed to assess whether analytical skills have been mastered. These are extremes and there are other task types on a continuum between the two extremes.
135 Reliability Standardisation Marking (with monitoring) This ensures that teachers mark to the same standard and apply the mark scheme consistentlyMarking (with monitoring)Teachers mark completed ISAs. This marking is monitored by the Subject Leader to ensure consistency.Checking and recordingTeachers check that every answer has been marked, addition is correct and results have been recorded accuratelyTask here
136 Reporting Why do you report to parents? What makes a useful or less useful report?
138 FeedbackYou will be asked to provide feedback on how learners performed on the test through their results and commentsDo you currently provide feedback?What sort of comments do you provide?Do you find it difficult to write feedback?
139 “Teachers should be aware of the impact that comments, marks and grades can have on learners’ confidence and enthusiasm and should be as constructive as possible in the feedback that they give.”Assessment Reform Group, 2002
140 Effective feedback Specific Positive Negative Non-specific It is common for teachers to mark all work that learners do in their lessons and for homework. This means that often marking concentrates on whether the work has been done, comments are made on presentation and spelling and often graded against no criteria or criteria that are not shared with learners.To improve learning, feedback comments should identify what has been done well and what still needs improvement, and give guidance on how to make that improvement. Opportunities for learners to follow up comments should be planned as part of the overall learning process. To be effective, feedback should cause thinking and learning to take place.Instead of marking every detail of every piece of work that learners complete, teachers decide upon the focus of a piece of work and share the marking criteria. An improvement target could be given as a question or small task for the learner to complete independently.Non-specific
143 Day 4 Delivering the updated curriculum: planning and resources
144 Day 4 Training objectives To feel confident in the purpose of the updated curriculum and its content (subject programme and course plan)To feel confident in the features of medium- and short-term planningTo begin to write an effective short-term planTo feel confident in using resources to support learners’ progress
145 Day 4 OverviewSession 1The updated curriculum: subject programme and course plansSession 2Medium- and short-term planningSession 3Medium- and short-term planning 2Session 4Resources
146 Day 4 Session 1 – The updated curriculum: subject programme and course plans – overview Subject-specific information in subject programmeStrands in subject programmeLinks between course plans and subject programmesReview of the dayTraining objectiveTo feel confident in the purpose of the updated curriculum and its content (subject programme and course plan)
147 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme contents (1) Part 1: General information1.1 The importance of the subject in the curriculum1.2 The aims of the subject programme1.3 Implementation of the trilingual policy1.4 Description of the organisational requirements for thesubject1.5 Pedagogic approaches for the subject
148 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme contents (2) Part 1: General information (continued)1.6 Developing respect for diversity of culture and opinion inthe subject1.7 Competence in the use of digital technologies in thesubject1.8 Developing communication skills in the subject1.9 Approaches to assessment in the subjectPart 2: Content2.1 Subject programme content, organisation and progression
149 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme: subject-specific content PairsChoose a section in the contents pageWhat subject-specific information do you think it contains? Write a listCompare with what is actually in the section
150 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme: strands How is learning organised in your subject?What are the ‘strands’?Are they logical to you?Remember:The updated curriculum is a spiral curriculumHow will this affect how the strands andlearning objectives are taught?
151 Day 4 Session 1 – Course plans: sections Long-term planIntroduction to language objectivesMedium-term planShort-term lesson plan
157 Day 4 Session 3 – Medium- and short-term planning (2): objective To begin to be able to write an effective short term plan
158 Day 4 Session 3 – Writing a short-term plan PairsChoose a learning objective from the course plans.Write a short-term planPairs of pairsEvaluate each other’s plansWhat is different about this new process of lesson planning?
160 Day 4 Session 4 – Resources: objective To feel confident in using resources to support learners’ progress
161 Day 4 Session 4 – Evaluating the course plan resources IndividuallyChoose a course plan activity.Are there any resources that might be difficult for teachers?Think about alternative/additional resources for the activityPairs, then whole groupShare your ideas
163 Day 5 Perspectives on language, skills and thinking within the curriculum
164 Session 1: Perspectives on the teaching and learning of vocabulary within the curriculum
165 Questions relating to issues covered in this session ? What does it mean when we say we know a word ?How many words should be taught at a time ?How, when and where should learners record words ?What type of activities make new words more memorable?How can we get learners to explore and use words meaningfully?
166 Seeing Knowing Using Keeping Vocabulary learningSeeing Knowing Using KeepingWORDS
168 Numbers : Answersapproximately 80% of all written and spoken communication consists of this number of wordswe should not teach more than this number of words at a time as this is all we can cope with in short-term memorythis is the approximate number of words in an Advanced Learners’ Dictionarythis is the number of words an average educated native-speaker knowsthis is the estimated number of times you need to see/hear/meet a word in different contexts before it becomes part of your competencethis is roughly the maximum number of words a second language learner can learn in a year – the average number would be much lowerthis represents the number of words someone around high B1 – low B2 competence knows.
169 Knowing wordsfrom English Profile Cambridge English Language Assessment
170 Lexical progression TAKE (tr.) P Take a book E Take a bus F Take part E Take a deep breathE Take this matter furtherE Take a keen interestE Take a pictureE Take an examE Take a napE Take a chanceE Take thing seriouslyF Take careF take place
171 pay: all verbsFrom English Profile Cambridge English Language Assessment
172 Moving from…WhatWhenHow… (a bit more about knowing)
173 Lexico-grammatical knowledge Depth of knowledgephonetic and orthographic dimensionsmain meaningsmain contexts of usesyntactic propertiesunderlying form and derivativesnetwork of associations with other wordsconnotations.
174 Before or after you payquote C bill A2 refund B1 discount A2 tip B1 loan B1 receipt A2 deposit B1 change B1Look at these questions and comments. Each one contains a phrasal verb connected with payment or money. Which of the words above is being referred to by each speaker?How much did you get back? B1You can’t take it back without one. B1When do you have to pay it back? B1
175 Vocabulary Activities : Learning objectives and course plans Dear Steve,Well, I’ve packed my belongings and I’m just about reading to depart. I had this long list of things to attend to before going, but everything will just have to wait until I return.I think you possess the phone number of the place where I’ll be residing for the next few weeks, so communicate by phone if there are any problems.It was warm-hearted of you to offer to look after the dogs while I am absent but they are used to the kennels so I don’t object to them going there.Hand-out 1
176 Content focus : ‘scaffolding’ words What is the language focus of this activity ?Mnemonics / Schematics / PragmaticsMatch a word from the left column to make a collocation related to the idea of researchA Bto present researchto carry out analysisto do datato conduct an investigationto collect findingsto draw evidenceto analyse a conclusionSignificant a problemto reportto identifyNow put these phrases in the correct place on the timeline of an investigation belowHow many words does it focus on?How should learners be encouraged to record words in this task?At what stage of a lesson [receptive/ productive skills] would this task be used?
177 The Spiral Curriculum and Vocabulary RevisitingRecastingchange of mode ..can present more challenging and creative pathways through review processesmain meaningssyntactic propertiesReformulationA learner’s ability to process and produce ‘relexicalisations’ in speech and writing is critical to success in all skills strands of a communicative curriculum and tasks based around reformulation should feature prominently in review processes
178 Vocabulary Activities Hand-out 2 As you work through the activities in the hand-out, consider the questions we began the session with.What does it mean when we say we know a word ?How many words should be taught at a time ?How, when and where should learners record words ?What type of activities make new words more memorable?How can we get learners to explore and use words meaningfully?
179 Session 2: The role of content and context within the curriculum
180 Questions relating to issues in this session How is information technology impacting on language teaching and learning ?How does what learners need to do with language today differ from 20 years ago ?What sort of contexts and tasks does the English curriculum use for presenting content ?What kind of transition might there be in the type of language skills focuses between the Primary and Secondary curriculum ?
181 Technology is only technology to those who were born before it. We have moved from “know what” learning to “know where” learning.Digital Media enables us to build more stages for our kids to express themselves. Marco TorresLearners can not rely solely on left-brain skills for success in the 21st century. They also need to design innovations, communicate through compelling stories, develop rapport with others, and synthesize seemingly disconnected information in new ways. Daniel Pink
182 21st century skills enquiry problem solving critical thinking independent learningcollaborationinformation handlingcreating and designingpractical skills
183 Follow one of these threads through the Grade 10 course plan Curriculum threadsW C UE11R S3 L1Follow one of these threads through the Grade 10 course plan
184 Primary Learner Secondary Learner Learners experiment with language using English in pairs, groups and whole-class discussions in a variety of informal and semi-formal situations. They develop the ability to ask questions to explore their own ideas and thoughts, to give and understand instructions, to describe and understand descriptions of people and objects, and to narrate and understand narration of events.The range of skills learners acquire is broadened by focusing on higher level skills such as reasoning, developing arguments, analysing and evaluating and the curriculum widens the range of application of these skills by equipping learners to use English to access and discuss non-language subjects.
185 The language necessary to understand and discuss content in school. BICS and CALPBICS = Basic Interpersonal Communication SkillsCALP = Cognitive Academic Language ProficiencyThe language necessary for day-to-day living, conversations with friends and family, informal interactions.The language necessary to understand and discuss content in school.
186 Context and cognitionundemandingembeddedreduceddemanding
187 context embedded and cognitively undemanding Context and cognitionundemandingA=context embedded and cognitively undemandingembeddedreduceddemanding
188 Context and cognition undemanding embedded reduced demanding Talking with friendsBuying lunchPlaying sportsembeddedreduceddemanding
189 context embedded and cognitively demanding Context and cognitionundemandingembeddedB=context embedded and cognitively demandingreduceddemanding
190 Context and cognition undemanding embedded reduced demanding DemonstrationsScience experimentsLessons with AVreduceddemanding
191 context reduced and cognitively undemanding Context and cognitionundemandingC=context reduced and cognitively undemandingembeddedreduceddemanding
193 context reduced and cognitively demanding Context and cognitionundemandingreducedembeddedD=context reduced and cognitively demandingdemanding
194 Context and cognition undemanding reduced embedded demanding Reading and writingStandardized testsMost content classesdemanding
195 Content Objectives Grade 10 10.1B Communication and Technology 10.C3 respect differing points of view10.C7 develop and sustain a consistent argument when speaking or writing10.C10 use talk or writing as a means of reflecting on and exploring a range of perspectives on the worldAs you review the materials in hand-out 3 think about our question: What sort of contexts and tasks does the English curriculum use for presenting content ?
196 Adapting materials Bridging Making objectives meet requirements Matching purposeMaximising appropriacyLooking for ‘congruence’.McDonough and Shaw 2003
197 Session 3: The development of higher order thinking skills and cultural awareness in the curriculum
198 Questions for this session What kind of cognitive activity do we typically associate with learning languages ?What do we classify as lower order and higher order thinking skills ?How does involving higher order thinking skills in language learning benefit learners ?What higher order thinking tasks types blend well with the aims of the communicative language classroom?
199 Bloom’s Taxonomy [hierarchy of the cognitive domain]
200 Approximate mapping of 21st century skills onto Anderson and Krathwohl’s revised  hierarchy of Bloom’s cognitive domainCritical Thinking Problem-solvingDecision-makingCreativity and InnovationInformation Literacy21st century skills outside Bloom’s cognitive domainLife and careerLearning to learn , meta-cognitionCitizenshipPersonal and social responsibilityCommunicationCollaborationICT Literacy21st Century skills:Ancient, ubiquitous, enigmatic?Cambridge Assessment 2013
201 Who was the key character...? What differences exist between...?Can you provide an example ofwhat you mean...?How is ... similar to...?What are some of theproblems of...?What were some of themotives behind...?What factors would youchange if...?From the informationgiven, can you develop aset of instructions for ..?What happened after...?How many...?Who was it that...?Which is true or false...?Is there a better solution to...?Judge the value of...Do you think ... is a good or a bad thing?Can you design a ... to ...?Make a moving vehicle which ..If you had access to all resourceshow would you deal with...?
202 Weaving these dimensions within our everyday tasks Teach skills through real-world contextsVary the context in which learners use a newly-taught skillEmphasise the building blocks of higher-order thinkingBuild background knowledgeClassify things in categoriesArrange items along dimensionsMake hypothesesDraw inferencesAnalyse things into their componentsSolve problemsEncourage learners to think about the thinking strategies they are using
203 Guess the GoogleAs you play Guess the Google, think about which high order thinking skills you are using.
204 Creative use of graphic organisers Critical Thinking Problem-solvingDecision-making
205 RankingOn a scale of plot M [me] MP [my parents] MGP [my grandparents]Likely to receive an SMS from friends before lunchtime1 _________________________________10Not likely to vote in local elections1 ___________________________ 10Likely to spend two hours in front of TV a day1 ____________________________10Now use internet sources to plot where the average Kazakh family would be.
206 Digitally Native or Naïve As much as we may marvel at learners dexterity/intuition with ICT, they still need their content/ information skills harnessed- advanced searching skills [linguistic processes]- questioning of sources [text awareness]- questioning of validity [interpretation/judgement]- comprehension skills [different reading processes]- utilisation [avoiding plagiarism/21st century skills]
207 Implications for formative and summative assessment .Implications for formative and summative assessmentObjectiveNumber of Items at Level I (Bloom's Taxonomy)Number of Items at Level II (Blooms' Taxonomy)1234
208 Superlative Imposter [What’s the task mechanism ?] SIZE : Lake Michigan the Pacific Ocean the River Nile the Caspian SeaNUMBER OF PEOPLE : Mexico City China English ChineseSIZE: Mount Everest Jupiter the Sahara the Empire State BuildingANIMALS : leopard ostrich great white shark giraffeCollaboration
209 Homophones Homophone Healing flower red poor fair presents poll week piece mail roll
210 Critical Thinking Problem-solving ROYAL BEHAVIOUR Task mechanism : active listening, in collective resolution of a problemSultan Mustapha III of the Ottoman Empire had 564 children all of them boysKing Pepi II of Egypt always kept slaves around him that were covered in honeyQueen Catherine the Great of Russia kept her hairdresser in an iron cage for three years.James Duke of Monmouth [ ] who was beheaded after he tried to become king had his head sewn back on after his deathKing John of England [reigned ] employed someone to hold his head [the royal head holder] whenever he went to sea.Critical Thinking Problem-solvingDecision-makingCollaboration
211 Our initial question :With another teacher, make a quick list of the names of task types you have seen that meet this objective, and could be used creatively and flexibly across the curriculum.What higher order thinking task types blend well with the aims of the communicative language classroom?
212 Session 4: Microteaching: focusing on learner-centred activity
213 What type of learner activity was going on in each micro-teaching slot ? How is ... similar to...?What are some of theproblems of...?What were some of themotives behind...?Who was the key character...?What differences exist between...?Can you provide an example ofwhat you mean...?What factors would youchange if...?From the informationgiven, can you develop aset of instructions for ..?What happened after...?How many...?Who was it that...?Which is true or false...?Is there a better solution to...?Judge the value of...Do you think ... is a good or a bad thing?Can you design a ... to ...?Make a moving vehicle which ..If you had access to all resourceshow would you deal with...?
214 Day 6 Modelling primary classroom language: primary listening and speaking skills
215 Teacher Modified Language and Comprehensible Input Strategies Day 6 Session 1Teacher Modified Language and Comprehensible Input Strategies
216 Questions related to key issues this session will address Why is spoken input so important in Primary language learning?How can teachers modify input, instructions to make them comprehensible?What type of talk activities are most likely to engage young learners?What does an ‘English only’ classroom look like ?
217 The core approach in the curriculum is: co-opting the learner into the process of making English the medium as well as the goal of all their learning……which means co-opting teachers into this too.
218 L1 early oral development Input [CDS]Outputsemantically contingentcontextualised language routinesrecastsoptimum opportunity to try outopportunity to work out (comprehensible output)evolving interlanguagelexicalisationgrammaticisationrelexicalisation
219 L2 early oral phase ‘silent period’ pre-school L2 teaching for ‘carer’ substitute ‘teacher’for ‘contextualised routines’ substitute ‘class routines’for ‘CDS’ substitute ‘TML’instinctive appeal of methods like TPRsuccess of high energy, non-threatening output/feedback classrooms.All contribute to exposure to sounds and the development of phonological processing.
220 ‘whole child’ talkutilise the experiences, knowledge and interests children bring to learning.make tasks meaningful, purposeful and funthink of an embedded rather than an explicit language focusmake sense from the learner’s perspectiveadd elements of performancedisplay outcomes.
222 Teacher talk ‘contextualised language’ language contingent on gesture, picture and actionsupport of ‘class routines’‘Teacher Modified Language’ (TML)appeal of methods like TPRpositive reinforcementstop to be sillypower of song and movement.
223 What learners should be able to do in English Learning outcomes are framed as a progressive can-do sequence.This encourages the use of learner-centred, activity-based approaches by teachers in the implementation of the curriculum.
224 Just a few of the input opportunities a medium like YouTube represents: wrap a presentlearn a dance stepsing alonghow to signdo magicmake projected puppet shapesdraw cartoon characterslearn card tricksmake a Chinese lantern that will fly.
225 Methodological implications Learning: high-quality interaction with the teacher as facilitator of language development, encouraging active use.Interactive full class teaching: challenging and careful use of questioning, elicitation and positive reinforcement.Pair and group work: high levels of participation and language use.
226 Look at the questions we began this session with Why is spoken input so important in Primary Language learning?How can teachers modify input, instructions to make them comprehensible?What type of talk activities are most likely to engage young learners?What does an ‘English only’ classroom look like ?Rank them according to which you can answer in the fullest detail.
227 Session 2: Modelling, eliciting, drilling and recasting techniques
228 Questions to consider during this session. When and how do we correct learner spoken language in the Primary classroom?What is the place of choral drilling and how can we vary such activity?How can we vary interaction patterns?What procedures and criteria might we use to begin to assess early learner output?
229 Effective questioning and eliciting techniques Same or differentOdd-one-outRankingWhat’s missing?What would you ask?If the answer is…what is the question?
230 Wait-timeSufficient ‘wait-time’ is needed after the question for learners toc _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the questionf _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ an answerp _ _ _ _ _ _ languager _ _ _ _ _ _.Wait-time before nominating and after the initial response encourageslonger _____________ from the learnersself-_________level of learner _______.
232 Drilling Energise and focus Model Chorus drill Highlight Individual drillPair/group drillChorus repriseBack-chaining, change emotions, change accents
233 Pair and group work gives learners more speaking time changes the pace of the lessonspotlight off you and onto the learnermix with everyone in the groupsense of achievement when reaching a team goalleading and being led by someone [not teacher]teacher monitors, moves and listens to learners’ languageenhances sense of challenge, performance and can-do.Think: seating, change of scene, group dynamics
234 Session 3: Types of listening inputs and tasks
235 Questions related to issues in this session include What types of listening activity are particularly engaging for Primary learners?How often is information in tasks repeated?What role do songs play in early language learning?What tasks might be effectively used for assessing early Listening?
236 Early listening input formats InstructionsDirect questionsTeacher gives learners worksheet with animal outlines to colour. Learners listen and colour animals according to teacher instructions.e.g. Colour the monkey blue and red. That’s right. The monkey is blue and red.Learners are given worksheets with numbers 1 to 10 written on and options y/n (for yes/no). Teacher reads out ten questions. e.g. Do cats like milk? Do cows eat eggs ?
237 Early listening input formats Listen and doListen and identifyListening and putting objects on and colouring different parts of a getting to school transport scene card. e.g. Write number 10 on the bus. Colour the bike blue. Put the cat in the car.Learners given worksheet and tick the correct option of three according to teacher’s descriptions.e.g. There are two black cats under a chair.
241 Song techniques with young children Movement and songsDrama scenarios in songsMotivational song techniques
242 Motivational techniques Musical chairsFreezeRemote controlLouder louderHotter or colderJoin inSinging rolesSubstitution: straight faceOur songLucky dipWho has it ?SpotlightLip syncingShadow dancing
243 Listening input/output challenges and grading length of textlanguage in textsentence lengthnumber of distractorspicture supportlanguage needed for answers
244 Now I can….. (can-do checklists) …follow instructions…spell out my name…count to twenty…ask ‘Who..’ questions…say what shape it is…name the colours of the rainbow…sing the birthday song…describe my room.
245 Returning to our question … What types of listening activity are particularly engaging for Primary learners?Make a list with another teacher.
246 Session 4: Classroom speaking dynamics and activities
247 Questions relating to issues in this session How do we get early Primary learners to speak in English and English only ?What are the implications for classroom seating and management?Do certain task dynamics produce more speech output?How do we assess and what do we assess in early learner speech ?
248 Primary teacher toolkit visualsgestureinstructional (semantically contingent) languageL1 cognatessongs and rhymesin school/out of school environment: internationalwords/names/symbols/shapes/numberspositive reinforcement (recasts, not corrections/echoes)easily identifiable formats: gaming, puzzles, riddles, jokes, spot the difference, odd-one-out.
249 Sample activity: How to tie … races shoe lacespig-tailsknotsa balloona bowa tiea blind fold
250 Combining Listening and Speaking Watch, Listen, Make, Decorate and Fly a paper plane
251 Assessing primary speaking TeacherLearnerSets the scene and ______ action_______ to items in a scene picture_______ cards while talking_______ an object card in a group of cards by _______Gives example and _____ task_______ object cards to places in a scene pictureAsks _____ questionsAsks closed _______ questions_______ about things in a scene pictureAsks questions and ____ learner wait-timeAnswering questions about ________ object cards________ to learner that focus of questions has changedAnswering personalized questions _________ to object cards_________ clear eye contact with learnerAnswering personal questions without __________
252 Speaking assessment criteria ReceptionPronunciationProduction: promptness and size of responseWatch and assess :
253 Now discuss our initial question : Do certain task dynamics produce more speech output?
254 Day 7 Early literacy techniques: primary reading and writing skills
255 Session 1: Developing awareness of the English code
256 Questions related to this session What is ‘alphabet’ knowledge and how might this impact on early literacy ?What are some of the barriers to early effective L2 [English code] literacy for children ?What are effective approaches for helping children to decode ?What does multi-sensory classroom Reading look like?
257 Quick quiz How many sounds are there in English ? How many characters are there in the English alphabet?How many consonant clusters are there in English?How many consonant clusters can occur both at the beginning and end of English words?What is a digraph?Why have UPPER CASE letters increased in importance in the last few years?
258 Grade 1 early literacy issues Why teach the alphabet?When should you teach the alphabet?What can cause confusion with alphabet teaching?Can we teach English spelling/decoding systematically?
259 a e i o ub d t p m g c f hSounding and sound pictures
260 Spot check: sound / i : / Frequency me beach tree key tree me key pony
261 Spot check: sound / k : / Frequency cat kitten duck kitten duck queen schoolqueenduckkittenqueenschoolcat
262 sun dress horse city ice We can represent this knowledge as:For sound / s /sun dress horse city icesound picture chart - THRASS chart
263 Early literacy sequence introduce most common sound pictures first.single letter consonant pictures b p t d l m and most frequent single letter vowel pictures a e i omove to consonant blends: st brmove to digraphs: sh chmove to split vowel digraphs: m a d e r i d emove to proper vowel digraphs: r ai nmake learners aware of initial, mid- and final position sound picture potential: st o p l o stpresent variation: dog eggpresent overlap: snow nowMid-PrimaryHigher Primary
264 These skills are reversible: they work for both reading and spelling. Key skillsBlending:Blend sound pictures (letters) to make wordsh o t t r ySegmenting:Segment words in to sound picturesth / a / t l / igh / tPhoneme manipulation:Manipulate sounds in and out of words.__ a p c a __These skills are reversible: they work for both reading and spelling.
265 Phono graphix Four principles English is a sound to grapheme code: think sound pictures: t gSome sound pictures are represented by more than one letter: ch sh aeThere is variation in the code - some sounds are represented by more than one sound picture: g gh ggThere is overlap in the code - some sound pictures represent more than sound: h ea t gr ea t
266 Following a phonographic approach means: you teach sound - sound picture relationships in a certain orderyou teach encoding and decoding at the same timekey skills are reversibleyou reject the idea of ‘silent letters’, ‘exceptions to rules’you may well complement with a sight word approach.
268 Skills framework sounds and sound pictures motor skills names sight words/environment wordsbe multi-sensory: hear look say touch move writeletter patterns and spellingintegrate with wider listening and speaking workfollowing stories being read (whole books)
269 Let’s return to our question What are effective approaches for helping children to decode ?Discuss with another teacher what these terms mean :sound picture blending sounding encodingsegmenting sight-word phoneme manipulation digraph
270 Session 2: Handwriting, spelling and decoding: potential learner problems
271 Questions to consider in this session What do we consider as early motor skills in learning to write?How can we make strong connections between decoding and encoding [spelling]?Can we help learners to visualise spellings ?If we took your learners to a spelling clinic what words would be their common complaints ?
273 English spelling is polysystemic phonologicalgraphemicetymologicalmorphologicallexical
274 Split digraph: magic ‘e’ (incredibly wide-ranging) Tim - time mad made us use Sam - same not note hat hate
275 Almost all top 100 words come from ‘Old English’ roots wh- kn gh – igh –aw –oware all Old English orthographical patterns.
276 Learning these common patterns Learners who expect to -gh are less likely to –hgLearners have fewer strange patterns to learn when they start to see these patterns, e.g. start to chunk: th- sh- -ionPermits ‘silent letter’ approach when we know ‘k’ / ‘w’ at beginning of words used to be pronounced.
277 Link to sound picture approach Oppositesighdaylowwronglooseheavyrlthn
279 Spelling: graphemic knowledge Possible ‘environment’ for letter stringsUseful graphemic patterns which can help learners:syllablesword lengthCVC doubling‘illegal’ endingsletters that don’t double-f / -ves
280 which bicycle Sticks and tails Key: Letters with sticks b d f h k l t Letters with tails g j p q yIn-line letters a c e i m n o r s u v w x zwhichbicycle
282 Piaget ‘discovery’get learners into the habit of ‘looking with intent’point out that print is all around themtake an interest in words as you read/ come across them (sounds like/looks like but.../word families)encourage learners to take mental photos of words/hold the image in their mind/break it down into ‘sound pictures’get learners to write down words and see if it looks rightair write wordsbe multi-sensory: hear look say touch move sound write
283 Let’s return to our question If we took your learners to a spelling clinic what words would be their common complaints ?Do any of these strategies help with the problems ?Word within a wordHighlighting the problem phonemeSticks and Tails [word shape]Pattern logEmotive SpellingMnemonic recording
284 Session 3: Whole child early reading activities
285 Questions related to issues in this session How do we make L2 literacy relate to aspects of the child’s world?What key approaches and resources are similar to L1 literacy situation?What type of practical reading outcomes engage children?What types of tasks can be used for assessing early reading ability?
286 Whole child emotional needs engaging with environment emergent literacies and languages (tri-lingual aims)cognitive abilitiescitizenshipemergent cultural identity and understanding.
287 Literacy needs in English and beyond Accessing contentTopics studied for general and social purposes in English lessons.Aspects of curricular topics relating to the school domain.ICT also central as development of digital literacy and its integration with other emergent literacies is also an important aim.
288 Active learning: Broad task dimensions of early reading and writing tasks integrated tasks whole books letter shapesword patterns picture dictionaries read and dowrite for display read and predict phonographix
289 Picture dictionary quest Find the animal by looking in the dictionary.It begins with ‘c’. It lives on a farm. It has got four legs.It lives on a farm. It begins with ‘sh’. It ends in ‘p’.They live in the sea. They begin with ‘f’. They lay eggs.It’s a bird. It begins with ‘p’. It cannot fly.
290 Whole child: cognitive abilities, participation, sharing - reading and listening quiz Can camels swim?How many legs has a spider got?Do snakes lay eggs?Can ducks fly?Does a chicken foot have three or four toes?Can frogs walk?Can chickens say “quack quack”?Do penguins lay eggs?Name two animals we get milk from?Can cows jump?How many legs has a frog got?Can you spell “bee”?
291 AfL - ‘Can do’ literacy ideas Now I can:solve letter puzzlesread and write my nameread and make labels for displayspell CVC words aloudread and make English signsuse a picture dictionaryread and pointread and say what comes nextread and follow picture stories
292 Returning to our question …. What key approaches and resources are similar to L1 literacy situation?Make a list of terms for approaches you have heard about today that might have the most impact in your teaching situation
293 Session 4: Whole child early writing activities
294 What might the missing words in the questions be? What type of activities should young L2 writers move on to after handwriting and m __ __ __ __ skill focuses?What are effective ways of getting learners to r __ __ __ __ __ words?What are typical early writing t __ __ __ types that are within the scope of younger learners?How can children e__ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ‘writing’ without using a pen or pencil?
295 ‘whole child’ emergent literacy Draw a shapeWrite a letterWrite the name of your favourite foodtechniques: back-writing/air-writing synchronicity
296 Multi-sensory writing techniques back writingdirectional letter writingletter sticks and tailspattern within a wordmaking string wordscompleting CVC wordslook-say-cover-write-checkrhyming wordsair writingsounding CVC wordssight word gamingstory predictionascending/descending lettersletter change dictationmaking string letters
297 look – say – cover – write – check template ReviseCopy and say the wordWhat’s difficult?How to rememberWord shapeCOVERheck
298 Typical early curriculum integrated writing focus SchoolThe world around us[P] Give learners a blank diagram/floorplan of their school. Give learners different images, e.g. car park, hall, toilet, gym, office, classrooms, canteen or library to cut out and stick on their diagram according to school layout. [W] Walk learners around school to find and copy down names of different parts of school in English [P] Learners label their diagram with words they have found around school. [W] Get two learners to come to front of class and blindfold them and spin them round. Ask Where? questions about class/school, which learners respond to by pointing. Ask the class ‘Is Kim right?’ to elicit responses.[D] Teacher demonstrates different things signs can typically mean Here Danger Please Stop This way Don’t [P] Learners read different signs in English and say which one of above each one means. [W] or [P] Online interactive sign reading. Learners read signs and complete short sentences either as whole class to board or on computers. [P] Learners draw/make signs using guided templates to put around school/classroom. All signs placed on a wall and other learners say what they mean.
299 Returning to our question … What are typical early writing text types that are within the scope of younger learners?Make a list of text types you think might be appropriate for Grades 1 – 4.
300 Day 8 Features of primary language classroom management
301 Session 1: Types of language classroom question and correction techniques
302 Questions relating to issues in this session? Why are questions crucial in all learning ? What specific extra purpose do they serve in language classrooms?How can we categorise types of classroom question?What are crucial features in differentiating questions?How can Ts vary question interaction patterns?How and when do teachers correct answers?
303 Teachers typically ask between 300-400 questions per day Questioning is crucial in:managing the classengaging students with contentencouraging participationincreasing understanding.promoting formative assessment.The quantity of questions asked needs to be considered in relation to:general time constraintskeep teacher talking time to a minimumtheir effectiveness in maximising learner contributions.
304 EFL: Types of questions displayreferentialprobingconvergentconceptproceduralhypotheticaldivergent
305 Language teacher questions convergent questionhypothetical questionprobing questionprocedural questiondisplay questiondivergent questionconcept checking questionreferential questionto move lesson stages/activities alongto elicit a range of learner languageto check learners have understoodto explore learner answers furtherto focus on language meaning and formsto promote learner speculationto elicit a simple correct answerto elicit something the teacher does not know answer to.
306 Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Thinking time: Consciously waiting for a learner or class to think through an answer (before you break the silence) e.g secsProvide time between setting the question and requiring an answer. Sometimes alerting learners to the approach and the time available to develop an answer.No hands questioning:Using the ‘no hands up’ ruleRef. AfL publication - Working Inside the Black Box.Learners aware that those required to give an answer, will be selected by the teacher. Teachers alert them to this as questions are asked.Linked to ‘thinking time’.Basketball questioning:Move questions and discussions between learnersTeacher establishes movement of ideas and responses around the class. Builds on other learners’ ideas and comments. Accepts ‘half-formed’ ideas. NB not ‘ping-pong’Conscripts and volunteers:Using a planned mix of ‘conscripts’ and ‘volunteers’Teacher selects answers from those who volunteer an answer and an equal amount of those who do not.
307 Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Eavesdropping: Deploying specific targeted questionsListen in to group discussions and target specific questions to groups and individuals.5Ws:Modeling simple exploratory questions to gather informationTeacher models the use of Who, What, Where, When and Why to set out a simple information gathering response based on the information provided.Signal questions:Providing signals to learners about the kind of answer that would best fit the question being asked. Teacher responds to learners attempt to answer, by signaling and guiding the answers.Seek a partial answer:In the context of asking difficult whole class questions, deliberately ask a learner who will provide only a partly formed answer, to promote collective engagement.
308 Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Phone a friend: Removes stress to enable those who cannot answer to participateThose who cannot answer are allowed to nominate a fellow learner to suggest an answer on their behalf, but they still have to provide their own answer, perhaps building on this.Hot-seating:A learner is placed in the ‘hot-seat’ to take several questions from the class and teacher.Mantle of the expert:A learner wears the cloak of the expert to answer questions from the class.Preview:Previewing questions in advanceQuestions are shared/displayed before being asked, or the start of the lesson.Pair rehearsal:of an answer or a questionPairs of learners are able to discuss and agree responses to questions together.
309 Error CorrectionCorrection symbols Some teachers use prompts for correction while speaking. Some well-known examples are:Make a ‘T’ with fingers to illustrate missing ‘the’.Show a small word missing by holding thumb and forefinger close together.Cross hands over to show wrong word order.… can you add to this list.
310 Returning to our question… How can we categorise types of classroom question?Give a concrete example to another teacher of the different types of language classroom question we have seen this session.
312 Questions relating to issues in this session Why do young learners find stories so engaging?How can features of stories be exploited pre-,while- and post-listening/reading?How can Ts modify language when storytelling?What’s the impact of accompanying story listening with viewing?
313 Tiddler ‘story’[W] Listening to an animal story with illustrations e.g. ‘Tiddler’. Teacher reads the story modified to class language level.[I] Listening to instructions for drawing, making and decorating different fish.[P] Writing captions (bubbles) of things learners remember from the story or fish might say.
314 Key class phases in story activity Pre:pre-teaching/eliciting vocabularyintroducing charactersstory-telling setting: mat, props, hats, puppets, signs, etc.While:images, animation, reinforcing languagelistening and reading alongaudience participation/pantomimePost:character empathy/voice consolidationconsolidating languagedrama, craft, display
315 Bike stories: Curious George and other bikes [W] Learners turn illustrations of a bike story ‘My new bike’ and suggest language for each picture.[D] Teacher introduces some key words from the story: curious surprise animal show newspaper[W] Whole class watches animation ‘Curious George rides his bike’ and listen to teacher tell story. [P] Learners work in pairs and make up and write captions for different sequences in the story.[W] Teacher tells the story with animation again and learners shout out captions i.e. what ‘Curious George’ says/is thinking.[W] Learners write out a selection of captions for a class story display.
316 Returning to our question How can Ts modify language when storytelling?Discuss with another delegate features that made the stories we heard accessible to learners.
318 Questions related to issues in the session What are the different learning style/mode preferences typically exhibited by learners?How can teachers effectively address these in activities?What type of language does performing craft activities particularly involve.What purposes can organised classroom display serve?
319 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners Learning styles are simply different preferences in the ways of learning.If teachers develop their teaching styles and provide a variety of tasks in these different styles, learning will become more effective and efficient.Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating
320 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners Audio learners like teachers that:use role plays as part of their teachingencourage classroom discussionsencourage learners to work in groupsgive time for learners to ask questionsinclude reading passages aloud in their teachingmakes learners recall facts by reciting things – rhymes, mnemonics, etc.do not need absolute silence in the classroom.Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating
321 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners Visual learners like teachers that:use pictures and videosdraw on the boardask learners to visualise a scene, or successful outcomegives learners time to sketch out ideas or to take notesencourages use of coloured penslikes to have a colourful classroom.Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating
322 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners Kinaesthetic learners like teachers that:encourage good note-taking (when watching videos, listening to explanations or going through examples)use activities that include moving around the classroomuse sticky-notes and flash cards for noting and sorting ideasencourage learning by doing, not just sitting.Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating
323 What’s in a task?Look at the activities. Sort them according to which ones would appeal more to:visual learnersauditory learnerskinaesthetic learners
324 Making finger/potato/hand puppets a simple hand [bag] puppet
326 DisplayDisplay as stimulus - designed to arouse interest in a particular concept or theme; cross-curricular links, develop aesthetic senseDisplay as information - designed to inform; provide reinforcement; act as resource, promptDisplay as celebration - designed to present children's work to a wider audience. validate work, sense of community, achievement and respect
327 Key elements in display imagination: think big and out of the boxeffort: think planning and resourcingstructure: think background, focus, visibilityorganisation: think timing and processRefresh, update and move on.
328 Primary Display Internet inspiration Find ‘display’ images from real classrooms that might be used to inspire teachers related to these actual displays in the curriculumSpring in KazakhstanUnderwater ocean scenePuppet/mobile displaysClassroom rules/signs display
329 Returning to our earlier questions What was the main motivational ‘purpose’ behind each display found on the internet ?What type of language did our craft activities typically involve.
331 Questions related to this session Why use content/activities from other subjects ?Can curricular concepts be taught in English?What are some ways in which we can teach collaboratively?What additional steps are involved in cross-curricular lessons?
333 Science[P] Listening to instructions for cutting out, vehicle outlines, making body of vehicle and showing how many people are inside.[P] Visiting teacher’s moving parts shop and requesting the things needed to make rest of vehicle. [P] Writing out labels in the form of flags for to put on learner vehicles, e.g. Tom and Tina’s tractor.[W] Saying where your vehicle can get to (vehicles rolled down a gentle slope and along a flat surface). Rest of class asked: Can it?
334 Cross-curricular primary tasks MathsArt and DesignListening, measuring and completing a graph about how long learner’s step is. Activity framework, worksheet and graph template :[I] Watching a demonstration and following instructions on how to wrap present. Silent video presentation which teacher pauses and prompts with language.[I] [f] Listening to instructions to make decorations to stick on wrapped presents e.g. Draw a star. Colour the star purple. Now give instructions for display.
335 Simple Maths/Science focuses within the English Curriculum Halving and doubling bingoSink or swimMaking representations from shapes
336 Returning to our question Why use content/activities from other subjects ?Make a list of reasons with another teacher.
337 Day 9 Developing learner language awareness and Use of English secondary classroom strategies
338 Session 1: Language awareness skills and curriculum learning objectives
339 Questions related to issues in this session How can L1 knowledge be effectively used/harnessed in developing L2?Are most errors related to L1 interference?What are the areas of ‘grammar’ knowledge different activities might combine/explore ?How can we deepen understanding of language points across a course / across grades ?
340 Language awareness Discuss these contrasts in your own first language I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. John didn't ask. I asked.I didn't demand it. I asked it.I didn't ask your secretary. I asked you.I didn't ask you to steal the flowers. I asked you to buy them.I didn't ask you to buy the flowers for your mother. I asked you to buy them for meI didn't ask you to by me one white rose. I asked you to buy me a bunch of them.I didn't ask you to buy me a bunch of red roses. I asked you to buy me white rosesI didn't ask you to buy me white lilies. I asked you to buy me white roses
341 What role L1 plays in the L2 awareness process Research has shown that ‘targeted’ vocabulary work is effective for acquiring vocabulary…particularly in areas like cognate mapping and cognate adjustment.This can lead to teaching focuses based around:common errorsfalse friendsdifferent forms of componential analysis
342 balloon fabric brilliant Russian false friendsdata alley chefcamera decade actualballoon fabric brilliantcarton accurate band
343 L1 cognatesDiscovering cognates between L1/L2 and L3 is part of competence.Comparison and contrast between L1/L2 and L3 is often a point of departure towards grasp of a form and deepening of understanding of meanings and connotations
344 Vocabulary and grammars Addressing where the learner is at. Difficulty could be:L1 / L2 differenceL1/ L2 close approximationL2 / L2 distinctionL2 / L2 conflation
345 Semantic/syntactic componential analysis Time [what are some of the issues here]a just with Englishb when compared to your languagefind pass waste fly have make spend drag go takeA took B went C flew D passedWrite sentences for which only one of the four will be correct.
346 Common ‘re-’ words used when talking about language curricular and progression revisitrecastreformulatereinforcerevisereviewrecycle
347 MEMORY GAME : Remembering and processing what was said wish:request:promise:apology:a piece of advice:something outrageous:What different ‘language points’ might this activity practise.What
348 RevisitingRecastingChange of mode. Can present more challenging and creative pathways through review processes.main meaningssyntactic properties
349 Importance of reformulation A learner’s ability to process and produce ‘relexicalisations’ in speech and writing is critical to success in all skills strands of a communicative curriculum, and tasks based around reformulation should feature prominently in review processes.
350 Grammar teaching/activity focus Grammar Focusesfunctionformnotionmeaningcontext and registeruses
351 lately? Example: Has he phoned his mother this week? already? What levels of knowledge does this activity involve ?all yearall weekbefore New Yearduring the partythe other daybeforein Julylatelyrecentlyalreadyaftereverjusta few timeslaststillthis weekneveroncefor agesFind three words in a row [horizontal diagonal vertical] that fit each gaplately?Example: Has he phoned his mother this week?already?Our friends have ……………….. been to the supermarket.I heard my husband shouting ………………..My colleague ……………….. came to work after her accident.We want to go on holiday ………………..I have ……………….. lost my temper.
352 Returning to the questions with which we began How can L1 knowledge be effectively used/harnessed in developing L2?Are most errors related to L1 interference?What are the areas of ‘grammar’ knowledge different activities might combine/explore ?How can we deepen understanding of language points across a course / across grades ?Answer each question with another teacher, using no more than 7 words for each answer.
353 Session 2: Grammar and vocabulary teaching - presentation and concept checking
354 Questions relating to issues in this session How can we present grammar and language points to learners without focusing on forms in texts?What are some of the key steps in inductive and deductive presentations?What type of questions is it important to avoid in concept checking?Why is context so important in presenting language?
356 Inductive and deductive approaches to presenting language. Make a list of the mini-stages involved in this type of ‘inductive’ presentationMake a list of the mini-stages involved in this type of ‘deductive’ presentation.
357 Write concept questions and their answers for each structure Write concept questions and their answers for each structure. Write a maximum of three questions for each structure.SentencesI’m sorry but I’ve lost my student card. Can I get another one?When I was a child, I used to play the piano.He’s working part-time at the moment and won’t be here until later.I wish I had an iPod.It can’t be John at the door – he’s gone overseas.
358 Research and devise a concept presentation Take one of the target structures on the previous slide and prepare a short concept presentation with concept –checking phase to present to the class.Imagine a group of low intermediate learners A2 – low B1.
359 Returning to our question Why is context so important in presenting language?Here are some answers this questionIt helps establish connections with what students know already.It is easier to generate meaningful and memorable examples of the language presented.Contexts are easier to animate with images and objects than abstractionsRepetition in context can be motivating and amusingLearners can engage with contexts affectively, physically, aestheticallyDiscuss these points with reference to what you have seen and done in this session
360 Session 3: Learner training techniques - recording language and using reference resources
361 Questions relating to issues in this session How and where should learners record language points from class?How can teachers encourage/promote good recording habits ?What should learners be encouraged to pay attention to in dictionaries ?How can teachers promote independent learning strategies?
362 Learner vocabulary notes What can Ts do to encourage them to keep the right words together?How might learners keep or store words ?
363 In Hand-out 5 which learner has made the better note in each case ? Learner grammar notesIn Hand-out 5 which learner has made the better note in each case ?
364 Dictionary workCompare these two different online dictionary entries for the verb ‘agree’.Do they do anything different?
365 Features that promote independent learning in multi-level classrooms extra sensitivity to grouping learners to ensure both supportive mixed-level group dynamics and grouping of learners to enable them to work on tasks at their own paceselection of materials and resources that are flexible in terms of how input can be accessed and outcomes achievedreliable means and instruments for assessing in an ongoing way most salient individual learner needsbuilding up of self-access resources both at a class and school leveldevelopment in learners of independent learning strategiesadherence to ‘English only’ policies when working in small groups and teacher is occupied with learners in other groups.
366 Returning to our question … How can teachers promote independent learning strategies?Discuss with another teacher which areas of your teaching situation you could target to effect the biggest impact in this area.
367 Session 4: Practising ‘new’ language strategies - teacher roles
368 Questions relating to issues in this session How do we categorise different forms of ‘new’ language practice ?What is an appropriate balance between presentation and practice ?When and how should teachers intervene in such an activity?What kinds of Formative Assessment / Reflection opportunities do such activities give teachers ?
369 Teacher roles in controlled practice To model effectivelyTo prioritise accuracy but not sacrifice contextTo drill where necessaryTo engage attention of all learnersTo use effective correction techniquesTo optimise learner talking timeTo vary input stimulusTo consolidate forms and sub-points to board.
370 Teacher role during freer practice Pace the activityListening for errors in the target languageListening to ensure that learners are on taskMicro-teaching to individuals or pairs who have clearly not grasped the target languageAdding input if learners cannot sustain outputAssessing the development of fluencyAssessing the taskMonitor to facilitate decision-making in terms of what to do next.
371 Learner roles in freer practice To engage with others in English to develop fluencyTo attempt to use the target languageTo gently monitor themselves using the target languageTo take risks and experiment with target languageTo offer observations post-activity.
372 GrammaticisationTry out this 3-step approach to meaningfully integrating the use of ‘words’ with GrammarLexis grammar [ not : Grammar lexis]Step 1 : SituationStep 2 : Raw wordsJohn leave Jane arriveStep ContextJohn really fancies Jane so changes his mindJohn wants to avoid Jane
373 Whose story ?Spot the person in the group whose story this actually is.Look for content cluesLook for credibility cluesLook for affective telling/recalland ask one ‘penetrating’ question.
374 FINAL THOUGHTS on communicative tasks strive for valueactive listeninghave them doingmulti-forumrequire greater cognitive and affective engagementmake it about themforeground ‘context’maintain a rich textual/pragmatic dimension.
375 Returning to our question What is an appropriate balance between presentation and practice ?Discuss with another teacher what you feel the optimum balance would look like in a 45 minute lesson.
376 Day 10 Strategies for developing secondary reading and writing skills
377 Session 1: Reading comprehension and interpretation skills within the curriculum
378 Questions related to issues in this session What do effective readers do ?How can we isolate certain types of skills development when dealing with texts ?What are key reading sub-skills?What are the purposes of different active learning pre-reading and post-reading activities ?
379 Reading: the bigger picture Google these :Bring all your reading skills to bear in discussing the images and words and trying to work out the context relating to them.
380 Woman without her man is nothing. Reading: the detailsUnpunctuated:Woman without her man is nothing.Punctuated by the man:Woman, without her man, is nothing.Punctuated by the woman:Woman, without her, man is nothing.
384 Which are more likely to involve top-down processes? finding specific words/numbers in a textextracting main ideas in a textusing a dictionary to check the meaning of a wordusing context to guess the meaning of an unknown wordusing word shape/lexical clues to guess meaning of a wordstating explicit and implicit meaning of texthighlighting direct speech in a textpredicting outcomes in a textsummarising ideas in a text.
386 Wider reading classroom activities Good idea or bad idea?Borrowing fiction/non-fiction from a class libraryCompleting e-reader assignmentsReading a set text as a classUsing an English-Russian / English-Kazakh dictionary to note approximate meaning of wordsCompleting regular English web-based assignmentsReading local English newspapersUsing a computer thesaurus to explore similar wordsUsing an English-English dictionary to check wordsKeeping detailed vocabulary notebooks.
387 Returning to our question How can we isolate certain types of skills development when dealing with texts ?Let’s read and make a note of the different types of skill targeted by different tasks.[11-13][P 9-11]
388 Session 2: Strategies in working with texts - developing learner awareness
389 Questions related to issues in this session What types of activity actively [physically] engage learners with meanings and patterns in text ?What do patterns of cohesion and coherence look like in texts ?What kind of micro-tasks can we use to develop detailed understanding?
390 Activities: beyond answering questions Meaning graphsSpotting text changesPre/post-dictionGraphic organisersJumbled paragraphsCut out (missing) paragraphsCircle reference words
391 Approaches to gapped text CoherenceThe relationships which link the meanings of the sentences in a text.CohesionThe grammatical and/or lexical relationships between the different elements of a text.
392 Coherence: post–diction task Opening lines (previous paragraph)The bare hills in this region have been of increasing concern to the island’s authorities.Even in the hottest months, clouds form over the mountains of northern Lanzarote.This more ambitious scheme could be managed in one of two ways, he says.The results look promising.
393 CohesionThe article explains how teenagers from five different countries spend their free time outside of school. Although social media and shopping were the top choices of teenagers in the UK, neither of these were as popular as listening to music in the other four countries.Music is a popular choice of pastime amongst both the young and old. However, their tastes are often quite different. But what makes this pastime so a popular one?such each this these neithertheir the other both itsboth they so ithere this did
394 Pre-reading Setting the context Generating interest Activating current knowledge - what do you know about… (pooling)Knowledge gap (quiz motivation)Activating vocabulary/language (elicitation)/(meaning graphs)Predicting content (non-content)Pre-learning vocabulary (pre-teaching)Checking/understanding of comprehension task mechanics (exam technique)
395 Multiple-choice elimination I shifted uncomfortably inside my best suit and eased a finger inside the tight white collar. It was hot in the little bus and I had taken a seat on the wrong side where the summer sun beat on the windows. It was a strange outfit for the weather, but a few miles ahead my future employer might be waiting for me and I had to make a good impression.There was a lot depending on this interview. Many friends who had qualified with me were unemployed or working in shops or as labourers in the shipyards. So many that I had almost given up hope of any future for myself as a veterinary surgeon.As he travelled, the writer regretted his choice of:AB clothesC careerD means of transport
396 Rephrasing prompts [prelude to a matching task] Which person:had to re-start their collection?received an unexpected gift?is aware that a fuller collection of items exists elsewhere?has a history of collecting different items?insists on purchasing top-quality items?has to protect their collection from damage?would like to create a hands-on display of their collection?
397 Google the term : Reading Graphic Organisers Go to images : and investigate and try to come up with a type label forany that look particularly interesting. Work with another teacher on this.
398 PunchlinesA motorist and his wife had had a quarrel and hadn’t spoke for hours. Suddenly the man saw a donkey in a field and said: ‘Must be a relative of yours.’ A bookshop assistant eager for a quick sale approached a student and said:’ This book is so good it will do half your homework for you’ A Maths teacher was explaining to a class what they had to do to get the answer to a problem: ’You have 10 fingers. Suppose you had 3 less what would you have?’ At a buffet dinner a husband said to his wife: ’You can’t be going back for dessert again. That makes 5 times. Aren’t you ashamed?’ During a lesson on the benefits of eating healthy food a teacher asked : ‘Name five things that contain milk’ A struggling newspaper reporter asked his editor: ‘Do you think I should put more fire into my stories ?’‘No music lessons’ ‘No I just say it’s for you’ ‘Cheese, butter and three cows.’ ‘Yes, by marriage.’ ‘No, vice-versa.’ ‘OK, I’ll take two of them.’
399 Returning to our question What types of activity actively [physically] engage learners with meanings and patterns in text ?Rank some of the techniques we have reviewed in this session which could make the biggest impact on the way you deal with texts. Discuss your list with another teacher.
400 Session 3: Classroom writing process cycle - micro-stages in writing lessons
401 Questions related to issues in this session What type of Writing learning objectives does the updated curriculum target?What type of processes do writers typically engage in when writing?How can we nurture better writing outcomes through classroom processes?Which parts of the classroom writing cycle imply pair/group collective writing activity?
402 Learning objectives Strand 5: Writing Learners develop the ability to plan, draft, layout and edit texts using a wider range of high-frequency vocabulary, with an appropriate level of grammatical and lexical accuracy and correct punctuation.
403 Writing objectives9.W1 plan, write, edit and proofread work at text level with minimal teacher support on a range of general and curricular topics9.W2 write independently about factual and imaginary past events, activities and experiences on a range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W3 write with moderate grammatical accuracy on a growing range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W4 use with limited support style and register appropriate to a growing variety of written genres on general and curricular topics9.W5 develop with support coherent arguments supported when necessary by examples and reasons for a range of written genres in familiar general and curricular topics9.W6 write coherently at text level using a variety of connectors on a range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W7 use independently appropriate layout at text level on a growing range of general and curricular topics9.W8 spell most high-frequency vocabulary accurately for a range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W9 punctuate written work at text level on a range of familiar general and curricular topics with a good degree of accuracy
404 When writing, L2 learners need guidance with every step of the process Data collectionSelectingPlanningDraftingCraftingEditingRewritingProof-reading.
406 Which part of writing cycle ? Announcing something new Referring to the other person’s letter Telling the person what to write back Arranging future contact or meeting Enquiring about common acquaintances Making excuses for not writingI was sorry to hear… You’ll be pleased to know.. I am dying to know what/how.. By the way, have you heard from..? I’ll be in touch soon about… Bad news, I’m afraid.. What’s the latest on/about ..? I’m sorry it’s taken so long.. You’ll never guess who/what … Let me know whether… It’s been ages since I last… So that’s why you … I’ll need to hear from you by..Which part of writing cycle ?
407 Letter BA letter to a friend of a friend to thank her and find out more because she has offered you the opportunity to stay with her for the month while you attend a language course in London.Letter A A letter to a holiday organisation to enquire about arrangements and facilities in their ‘historical English cottages’.You are a keen tennis player Your brother has a disability You like to get up early You and your family are vegetarians You are really messy at home You enclose a photo of yourself You give your ID number. You think smoking is a disgusting habitHow much is it to phone your home country? What channels can get on TV? Is there a washing machine? How far is the town centre? Will towels be provided ? What’s English food like? How much do you earn?Which part of writing cycle ?
408 Dear Steve,Well, I’ve packed my belongings and I’m just about reading to depart. I had this long list of things to attend to before going, but everything will just have to wait until I return.I think you possess the phone number of the place where I’ll be residing for the next few weeks, so communicate by phone if there are any problems.It was warm-hearted of you to offer to look after the dogs while I am absent but they are used to the kennels so I don’t object to them going there.Which part of writing cycle ?
409 Write the rhetorical question that could have produced the rest of the paragraph ExampleAre things really as bad as the experts say ? We don’t have to look far to realise that the situation is terrible, it is getting worse and people are making crazy lifestyle choices.___________________________________?Well, everyone can make a start by changing their throw-away lifestyle. If individuals, then households and then organisations start to reuse things, we can make a difference___________________________________________? The answer: they can probably do what you ask them to do. If you want to eat a bit later or want your little brother out of the way, just ask your parents. But the secret is to ask in advance not once you’ve been distractedWhich part of writing cycle ?
411 Returning to our question…. Which parts of the classroom writing cycle imply pair/group collective writing activity ?What would your answer be ?
412 Session 4: Feedback and AfL strategies in relation to written learner outcomes
413 Questions related to issues in this session How do teachers typically feedback on writing tasks?What happens following this process?What type of criteria might be used to assess comment on writing?How can we promote self-correction and engagement with the feedback process?
414 Criteria highlighting Content:OrganisationCommunicativeAchievementLanguage: accuracy and range414
415 Written feedback types correction codecomment only markingcriterion highlightingutilisation techniquecode red ‘elicitation’ticks and crossesthree stars and a wisheditor tipscomposite feedback.
416 MarkError indicated/\A word is missing/Start a new sentence//Start a new paragraphGrGrammar errorSpSpelling errorPPunctuation errorArtError with articles (a, an, the)
417 UtilisingThe local market it is outdoors so that it is exposed to the elements. (organisation)asbeingMany cloths shops are expencieve, because there are brands. (accuracy and range)brandssuch shops canOn the hole it is recomented that tourists should visit the local market. (register)I wouldOn the wholetourists
418 Composite feedbackDear Visitor,Thank you for you interest in visiting our country. And you are welcome to visit our city, Trieste and all its surroundings. Trieste is a city with old traditions and a long history that begins in the distant years of the Roman Empire. The city centre is worth a deeper visit, thanks to its unique buildings and old-fashioned cafes - not to mention all the places not in the tourist guides. Do not get surprised if, round the corner, you discover something you didn’t expect. To come to know Trieste then you need to make a walk through its streets where you will find peaceful parks which are considered an oasis of peace.
419 Returning to our question How can we promote self-correction and engagement with the feedback process?Rank these techniques in terms of how effective you think they might be in your teaching situation.correction codecomment only markingcriterion highlightingutilisation techniquecode red ‘elicitation’ticks and crossesthree stars and a wisheditor tipscomposite feedback.
420 Day 11 Classroom management, micro-stage outcomes, monitoring and feedback in secondary listening and speaking activity
421 Session 1: Types of listening comprehension skill development within the curriculum
422 Questions relating to issues in this session What do effective listeners do?What type of listening sub-skills are targeted in the curriculum?What types of task best help target sub-skill focuses?What range of listening tasks might we typically use for Formative Assessment?
423 Effective listeners:connect: make connections with people, places, situations, and ideas they knowfind meaning: determine what the speaker is saying about people, places, and ideasquestion: pay attention to those words and ideas that are unclearmake and confirm predictions: try to determine what will be said nextmake inferences: determine speaker's intent by inferring what the speaker means but does not actually sayreflect and evaluate: respond to what has been heard and pass judgement.
424 Listening skills taxonomy Direct meaning comprehensionListen for gistListening for main idea(s) or important information; and distinguishing that from supporting detail or examplesListening for specifics, including recall of important detailsDetermining a speakers’ attitude or intention towards a listener or a topicInferred meaning comprehensionMaking inferences and deductionsRelating utterances to their social and situational contextRecognising the communicative function of utterancesDeducing meaning of unfamiliar lexical items from contextContributory meaning comprehension.
425 Listening skills taxonomy Understanding phonological featuresUnderstanding grammatical notions such as comparison, cause, result, degree.Understanding discourse markersUnderstanding the main syntactic structure of clauses or idea unitsUnderstanding cohesion, especially referenceUnderstanding lexical cohesion, especially lexical set membership and collocationsUnderstanding use of lexis in contextListening and taking notesAbility to extract salient points to summarise the textAbility to select relevant key points.
426 Formative Assessment of Listening: Look at Hand-out 3 and discuss with another teacher how you might deliver/stage this task to meet the conditions in the left-hand box.Formative AssessmentSummative AssessmentInformalFormalContinuousFinal/SnapshotOral/WrittenWritten/oralScaffolding/ImprovingJudgingAssessment for learningAssessment of learningDialogicMonologicProvides feedback/suggestionsProvides a mark/statusFurthers learningMeasures learningIntended to motivateOften stressful for studentsFlexibleSystematic, regulatedNarrow focusBroad focusUseful further reading:
427 Returning to our question What types of task best help target Listening sub-skill focuses?Make a table with another teacher.
428 Session 2: Micro-stages of listening lessons and integrated listening outcomes
429 Questions relating to issues in this session How can we compensate for ‘context’ deficiency in listening tasks?What other work might we typically integrate listening/ viewing tasks with?What do we mean by ‘metacognition’ in listening?What phases of activity do teachers need to manage in and around ‘listening’ tasks ?
430 Micro-stages in listening Lead inPre-teachGist question(s)Listening to part of the textFirst listeningCheck answers to the gist question(s)Look at the detailed comprehension questionsListening for detailed comprehensionCheck answers to the detailed comprehension questionsLanguage analysis and/or reaction to the text.
431 Watch this extract from the series: ‘The human planet’ Video Extract : ‘Catching Auks’ from the episode Life in the deep freeze.This fits with cross-curricular objectives in Grade 11 relating to the preservation of food.Think about micro-stages in Listening lessons and discuss with another teacher some of the things you might do in using this Listening input.
432 Reasons for supporting listening through video Expand learner experiences beyond the classroom (context)Accommodate different learning styles (medium)Support curriculum with real world tie-ins (content)Aid to retention and comprehension (media)Encourage learner participation (interaction patterns)Motivation and engagement (viewing techniques)
433 Video techniques to promote listening skills sound on/sound offdubbingsubtitlesmedia adaptationkaraoke functionback to screenfreeze frame
434 Returning to our question How can we compensate for ‘context’ deficiency in listening tasks?With another teacher, make a list of useful techniques.
435 Session 3: Range and type of group, and whole class curriculum speaking activities
436 Questions related to issues in this session How can we characterise/label different forms of speaking activity in class?Does all speaking activity need to have a specific skills focus?What areas/genres of speaking might specific skill focuses target.What do reliable speaking assessment criteria look like?
437 What types of speaking/oral assessment activities are suggested by these verbs of speech ? Oral workSaySpeakTellTalk
438 Speaking activity focuses TurnsActive listeningSkills and strategiesPatterns of interactionSpoken language
439 Assessing Speaking What might we assess? Write a list of terms that you think might feature in assessment criteria.
440 Which of these terms do your terms relate to? Grammar and vocabularyDiscourse managementPronunciationInteractive communication
441 Returning to our Question Does all speaking activity need to have a specific skills focus?List activities for which the answer above would be no and types of activity for which the answer would be yes.
442 Session 4: Classroom management, monitoring and feedback of speaking activities
443 Questions relating to issues in this session What skills does a teacher need to develop to effectively manage speaking lesson focuses?What are some of the ways that teachers can reduce TTT ?Should correction and feedback always be immediate?What strategies can teachers use to include more reticent speakers?
444 Video viewingIn a table write down phases of this speaking / language input lesson that seem to fit the classification.T-S S-S S-T
445 Returning to our question Should correction and feedback always be immediate?Discuss with another teacher the best moments of giving feedback you have seen in this session.
446 Day 12 Developing resource finding, adaptation and awareness skills for the curriculum
447 Session 1: Types of widely available resource, and learning outcomes they promote
448 Questions relating to issues in this session What do you think might be meant by the phrases ‘death by PowerPoint’ and ‘death by worksheet’?What type of ELT resource/support websites would you cite as useful?What should your first three questions be when evaluating the potential effectiveness of a resource?What ‘ready-made’ resources often prove the hardest to find?
449 Types of resources Slide shares Book/film resources Digital craft Digital reference Worksheets PodcastsLiterature sites (audio) Computer ELT DocumentariesAudio-visual demonstrations Presentation softwarePrint sites Teacher support sites
450 Returning to our question.. What should your first three questions be when evaluating the potential effectiveness of a resource ?Discuss with another teacher how you now answer this.
451 Session 2: CLIL approaches within the curriculum and finding CLIL resources
452 Questions related to issues in this session What do you understand CLIL to mean?Are content with language lessons, CLIL lessons?What sort of language support will learners need when dealing with subject type tasks?Where can we begin to look for subject / cross-curricular resources?
453 Providing CLIL language support? Discussion of your ideas:planning for the lesson?during the lesson?at the end of the lesson?
454 How can you provide language support? Planning for the lesson:Write a language objective for the lesson plan.If the language of a text/resource is difficult, consider whether to adapt the resource or how to scaffold the teaching activity.If you have team-teaching in your class, share your lesson plan with the other teacher.
455 How can you provide language support? During the lesson:State the language objective.Write key words on the board and pre-teach them.Use all four skills – listening, speaking, reading, writing.Encourage language learning skills – e.g. paraphrasing, asking for clarification, dictionary skills.Encourage critical thinking about language – e.g. learners comparing how to say things in Kazakh/Russian/English, learners being precise, learners assessing own progress in language.Be ‘language aware’ – e.g. give visual support, use body language, give learners time, repeat things, say it in a different way, give examples.
456 How can you provide language support? At the end of the lesson:Review progress with the language objective.Give feedback on language as well as content.Liaise with the team teacher – if complex content is not understood.Liaise with language subject teacher – if any language issue (e.g. essay writing skills) need reinforcing.
457 CLIL resourcing: three routes Subject curriculum support sites:CLIL and subject materials searchesGeneric CLIL sites
458 Returning to our question What sort of language support will learners need when dealing with subject type tasks?What were the best examples of ‘scaffolding’ task that you met during this session ? Discuss with another teacher.
459 Session 3: Evaluating resources against curriculum learning objectives
460 Questions relating to issues in this session Does the way we use a resource need to match the intended learning purpose of that resource?Is vocabulary level always a potential barrier in using a resource?What should our key concerns be in adapting resources?What do you understand by the terms ‘staging’ and ‘pacing’ in lessons?
461 Resource evaluationWhat kind of resource is this (structured tutorial, supporting material, index)?What purpose does it seem to have, in terms of learning needs?How would you use it with learners in practice? (e.g. what activities/assessment tasks could you structure around it?)How would you describe it to learners in one or two sentences?How effective do you find it as a learning resource?
462 Adapting materials Bridging Making objectives meet requirements Matching purposeMaximising appropriacyLooking for ‘congruence’.McDonough and Shaw 2003
463 Returning to our question Is vocabulary level always a potential barrier in using a resource?Did you feel any of the resources presented had problems in this respect?
464 Session 4: Presenting a cross-curricular resource to peers with appropriate language scaffolding
465 Questions relating to issues in this session What areas of language might be the focus in scaffolding for subject tasks?Is scaffolding appropriate for every stage of lessons?In such lessons, what is it important to consolidate/concept-check in addition to the language in tasks ?
466 Language objectives: guidelines For each short-term lesson plan:Write a language objective which helps to achieve the subject learning objective and which encourages use of language.e.g. Make an oral presentation on...List subject-specific vocabulary:e.g. rational number, fraction, denominator, numeratorList useful phrases (classroom language) for dialogue/writing:they could be an explanation, e.g. If A is inversely proportional to B, then…they could be grammatical, e.g. bigger than, smaller thanthey could be frames for dialogue/writing, e.g. Can you say why…?Further guidance: Introduction to language objectives and samples in course plans.
467 Returning to our question… Is scaffolding appropriate for every stage of lessons?Discuss with another teacher in relation to the examples of the ‘content with language’ lessons seen in this session.
468 Day 13 Progression and achievement (Classroom-based assessment)
469 Session 1: Types of differentiation and identifying success criteria
470 Questions related to issues in this session In what ways can teachers ‘differentiate’ learning?Is differentiation only related to differences in subject ability?Is it practical for teachers of large classes to differentiate learning objectives? Is this a valid response to the course plan?
471 ‘Differentiated’ learning in practice It is not just about:“individualising” instruction e.g. through worksheets or homework tasksORbalancing “group work” with “individual work” so as to support different learners differently
472 Effective ‘differentiated’ learning Effective ‘differentiated’ learning is more about noticing how different learners react to different techniques...responding and adapting to this…modifying and varying activities within the teaching mix, keeping all learners involved in lesson outcomes.
473 Differentiated by support A varying amount of support can be offered to learners in a variety of ways.Weaker learners can be supported through instruction/prompt modificationThe more able learners will need to feel challenged too. Their input could provide support for weaker learners, they could be given more challenging instructional tasks or they could be given additional contextualised problems.
474 Differentiated success criteria The success criteria specified could be differentiated by indicating what proportion of the class will achieve which criteria:ALL – every learner in the class will achieve thisMOST – a large proportion of the class will achieve thisSOME – a few of the more able will achieve this. Some learners will not try to achieve this but instead focus on earlier success criteria.
475 Differentiated by task Tasks are set according to learners’ abilities. They may differ in content or structure.This may be as simple as having a choice between a variety of questions getting progressively more difficult, or learners attempting completely different tasks covering the same topic.
476 Learning styles or modes are also a way of conceptualising differentiation by task DigitalVirtual
477 Differentiated by outcome Each learner is set the same investigative, creative and/or open-ended task. Learners produce a variety of solutions/designs dependent on their ability, strengths and preferences in learning.Simple examples would be for learners to design and answer their own problems/questions about a topic being studied.Learners being given investigations may just test and report results, whilst the more able may be able to generalise and justify more easily.
478 A profusion of new literacies under discussion relating to the digital revolution. Differentiated outcomes can target these.the ability to mine new information and interact constructively with itNew literaciesInformationLiteracyMedia LiteracyICT/digital LiteracyVisual LiteracyNews LiteracyEmotional Literacy/Intelligenceconstellation of behavioural dispositions and self-perceptions concerning one’s ability to recognise, process, and utilise emotion-laden informationthe ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image
479 Returning to our question Is differentiation only related to differences in subject ability?Discuss with another teacher.
481 Questions relating to issues in this session How are learning objectives and lesson objectives different?What are key words when thinking about success criteria?What do SMART lesson objectives look like?
482 Course Plan: ‘Writing learning objectives’ 9.W1 plan, write, edit and proofread work at text level with minimal teacher support on a range of general and curricular topics9.W2 write independently about factual and imaginary past events, activities and experiences on a range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W3 write with moderate grammatical accuracy on a growing range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W4 use with limited support style and register appropriate to a growing variety of written genres on general and curricular topics9.W5 develop with support coherent arguments supported when necessary by examples and reasons for a range of written genres in familiar general and curricular topics9.W6 write coherently at text level using a variety of connectors on a range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W7 use independently appropriate layout at text level on a growing range of general and curricular topics9.W8 spell most high-frequency vocabulary accurately for a range of familiar general and curricular topics9.W9 punctuate written work at text level on a range of familiar general and curricular topics with a good degree of accuracy
483 Lesson objectives in plans Choosing clear learning objectives, relating to overarching learning objectives for the Grade, will help when thinking about what support is appropriate for learners, whether they are struggling or are able.Success criteria specify what changes are expected as a result of a lesson. They are set out at the beginning of the lesson and should include measurable indicators to show that learners’ knowledge and understanding has grown.The success criteria will be the focus of the plenary at the end of the lesson, when reviewing what has been learnt during the lesson.
484 Using the planning template Lesson objectives need to be SMART
485 Differentiated success criteria in plans The success criteria specified could be differentiated by indicating what proportion of the class will achieve which criteria:ALL – every learner in the class will achieve thisMOST – a large proportion of the class will achieve thisSOME – a few of the more able will achieve this. Some learners will not try to achieve this but instead focus on earlier success criteria.
486 Returning to our question How are learning objectives and lesson objectives different?Discuss with another teacher pairs of opposite adjectives you could use to contrast them.
487 Session 3: Exploring writing assessment guidance and success criteria
488 Questions related to issues in this session What kind of words feature in writing assessment criteria?Should I have similar words in mind when assessing writing formatively?What do positive teaching outcomes of formative assessment look like?
489 Writing assessment criteria words desired effect on the target readercontentnon-impedingsuitable linking devicesaudiencecoherencerange of structure and vocabularylanguage is accurateregistercomplexityformatappropriatecohesionpurposeerrors.
490 The Cambridge English learning ladder CPEC2CAEC1FCEB2PETB1KETA2FlyersC2MoversFor schools versionsYLEBeg-A2
491 B1 Target learning outcomes brainstorm, plan and draft written work at text level with limited supportcompose, edit and proofread written work at text level with limited supportwrite with moderate grammatical accuracy with limited supportdevelop coherent arguments supported when necessary by reasons, examples and evidence for a growing range of written genresuse with limited support style and register appropriate to a limited range of writtenuse appropriate layout for a range of written genresspell a range of high-frequency vocabulary accuratelypunctuate a range of written work with accuracy.
492 Band 4The learner’s writing will achieve the desired effect on the target reader. The use of language will be fairly ambitious for the level, including a range of structures and vocabulary within the task set. There will be some linking of sentences and evidence of organisation. Some errors will occur, although these will be generally non-impeding. Overall, only a little effort will be required of the reader
493 Band 3The learner’s writing may struggle at times to achieve the desired effect on the target reader. The use of language, including the range of structure and vocabulary, will be unambitious, or, if ambitious, it will be flawed. There will be some attempt at organisation but the linking of sentences will not always be maintained. A number of errors may be present, although these will be mostly non-impeding. Overall, some effort will be required of the reader.
494 Remember key contrasts in focus even though you may internalise same criteria
495 Returning to our question What do positive teaching outcomes of formative assessment look like?Make a list of the kind of things that observations relating to writing performance might prompt you to do in subsequent lessons.
496 Session 4: Microteaching involving assessment and feedback techniques
497 Questions relating to issues in this session Does the accuracy or fluency focus of an activity affect how and when I give feedback?What kind of feedback/comment habits should I avoid in oral and questioning activities?What techniques can make correction less demotivating?How can we integrate peer feedback in non-threanening ways?
499 AFL: Oral techniques [f] How and when ? Techniques [P] [G] [I] [W] Monitoring notesLexical interrogation/notebooksRecastingCCQsSilent pointingSummary go-betweensPeer presentation feedbackError reviewFinger correctionQuiz.[f] How and when ?[P][G][I][W]
500 Returning to our question What techniques can make correction less demotivating?Discuss with another teacher ideas you’ll be taking away from this session.
502 Session 1: Focusing on dimensions and features of lesson plans
503 Questions relating to issues in this session What are the key documents informing planning in the delivery of the English curriculum ?In what time frames does it make sense to think about the course plan in terms of lesson planning?What are the key considerations when evaluating a plan?
505 Planning lessons including classroom assessment Assessment guidance and success criteriaAssess each learning objectiveUse both documents to plan lessons. Cross-reference materials using the learning objectives. These documents are in development. For documents that are currently draft, updated versions will be available by September.Course planTeach each learning objectiveIdentify resources for each learning objectivePlan lesson
506 PlanningIn groups, identify quickly what the key documents are for teachers in planning class work.In groups, discuss briefly the difference between the following terms in the planning process:learning objectiveslearning outcomeslearning success criteria
507 Planning questions to consider When planning, evaluating or reflecting on lessons consider:Are the lesson objectives designed to ensure that there is appropriate challenge for all learners?Do the planned activities meet the needs of all the learners?Are there any specific needs/circumstances of individuals that need to be taken into consideration?Are all learners participating in the activities?Are the resources matched to the needs of the learners?Can all learners access and use the resources they need?
508 Returning to our question In what time frames does it make sense to think about the course plan in terms of lesson planning?Discuss with another teacher how far ahead it is SMART to plan in terms of the course plan.
509 Session 2: Identifying micro-stages in lesson plan sequences
510 Questions relating to issues in this session Why are interaction patterns T-S, S-S, S-T important to note in plans ?What techniques are most effective for me in reducing TTT?What labels can we give to micro-stages in English lessons?What kind of things do I need to reflect on in terms of my behaviours after a lesson?
511 Reducing teacher talking time ElicitElicit answers and concepts from students.Concept check understanding of new words and structures. Don’t over explain.Body languageUse body language, gestures, props, and the board to explain.InstructionsMake instructions simple and concise to avoid explaining them multiple times.EchoingDon’t echo learner responses.QuestionsAsk open-ended questions, not yes/no questions.Use “why” and “how” to prompt learner explanations.Ask follow-up questions.
512 Reducing teacher talking time ParticipationEncourage all learners to participate.Learners should read instructions, examples, exercise questions, and anything else that is possible. The teacher should never read these things.Study methodsUse inductive methods to teach new ideas.Learners should use self-discovery to find answers and solutions.FeedbackLearners can give each other feedback rather than the teacher.SilenceProvide learners with ample thinking time so they can formulate answers and be prepared to speak.Tolerate silence and don’t fill it with TTT.
513 Reducing teacher talking time Lesson plansPrepare your lesson plans thoroughly. A teacher with a good lesson plan is less likely to fill in gaps with talk time.Learner confidenceBe positive about mistakes.Provide a welcoming class environment where learners feel they are able to make mistakes.Increase learners’ confidence whenever possible.Learner levelMake sure learners are in the appropriate level.Ask learners appropriate questions so they are able to answer.
514 Reflection checklists Do I use questioning effectively to gauge learners’ understanding?How good is the dialogue and oral feedback? Am I alert to learners’ lack of understanding during lessons?Are key questions displayed and used in lesson starts and plenary? ‘What? Why? How? When?’Do learners have targets and do they understand what they mean/what to do to achieve them?Are learners involved in assessing their own learning and progress?Does marking/feedback identify strengths and diagnose next steps to improvement?Learner progressClear expectations made of learningLearners making value added progress during lesson in their knowledge and skillsBehaviour and enjoymentAttitudesAttentivenessDesire to learn moreEnthusiasm/enjoymentEffort made
515 Returning to our question What labels can we give to micro-stages in English lessons?List in discussion with another teacher different examples of ‘stages’ we have come across in this session.
516 Session 3: AFL, concept-checking, consolidation, feedback and plenary staging in plans
517 Questions relating to issues in this session What different AFL strategies can we name?Why is variety in the type of AFL technique we use important?What does the term ‘intake’ mean ? How is it different from learner output?Do AFL techniques relate more to teacher input or learner output phases of the lesson?
519 Example Activity Secondary The ‘Do’ Card QuizAnalyse the activity in groups and decide what specific language issues/points the activity gives you scope to monitor in terms of AFL.
520 Example Activity Primary Object movingWhiteboard scene card[can-do]
521 Plenaries To provide the necessary variety, plenaries can be used to: draw together what has been learned, to highlight the most important rather than the most recent points, to summarise key facts, ideas and vocabulary, and stress what needs to be rememberedgeneralise from examples generated earlier in the lessongo through an exercise, question learners and rectify any remaining misunderstandingsmake links to other work and what the class will go on to do nexthighlight not only what learners has learnt but how they have learnt ithighlight the progress learners have made and remind them about their personaltargetsset homework to extend or consolidate class work and prepare for future lessons.
522 What does the term ‘intake’ mean What does the term ‘intake’ mean ? How is it different from learner ‘output’?Discuss with another teacher why this distinction is so important for AFL in English classes.
523 Session 4: Presenting ‘rationale’ of micro-plans to peers
524 Questions relating to issues in our session. What kind of ‘balances’ will a good language lesson plan maintain?What are different terms for checking stages in plans?What is eliciting? How should this be detailed in plans?
528 Returning to our question What kind of ‘balances’ will a good language lesson plan maintain?Discuss with another teacher good examples of plans you have seen this session.
529 Day 15 Engaging learners with curriculum content and introduction to micro-teaching
530 Session 1: Learner engagement techniques - lesson hooks, forms of personification, flipped classroom, types of elicitation
531 Questions relating to issues in this session When we use the term ‘engage’ learners, what is it that we might want to appeal to?What techniques can we use to ‘hook’ learner interest?What processes does the idea of the flipped classroom refer to?Beyond homework, what type of learning-related activity might we hope to promote outside of class?
532 Lesson hooksSetting contextConnection or linkMotivationPreviews
533 Types of ‘hook’ Magic tricks Jokes (punch lines) Quotations (when, by whom)Statistics (get one past me)Cartoons (the point is)TrailersComic adsVideo clips [exams:Headlines (change one word)
534 Flipped classroom techniques Before : Learners prepare to take part in class activitiesDuring : Learners practice applying key concepts with feedbackAfter : Learners check their understanding and extend their learning
535 Flipped classroom benefits New learners can catch up on what’s been done, without the teacher having to repeat the same lessons.Flipping supports differentiation as learners can go through the lesson as much as they need.Flipping allows teachers to better support learners in person in class, rather than doing all the teaching and support in the class time slot.Flipping provides ready-made review and consolidation, as well as being learner-centred, because the learners take responsibility for their learning.
536 Returning to our question Beyond homework, what type of learning related activity might we hope to promote outside of class?CompleteSo learners that truly engage with content might :
537 Session 2: Task-staging: promoting greater interaction and engagement
538 Questions relating to issues in this session What key features do games, puzzles and quizzes have that make them engaging?Which type of motivation are most classroom tasks most likely to tap into?Why are ‘instruction checking’, ‘activity modelling’, and ‘doing one together’ such important classroom techniques?
541 Returning to our question Which type of motivation are most classroom tasks most likely to tap into?Discuss with another teacher which elements of which activities we have done this session would have most appealed to you as a learner.
542 Session 3: Introduction to principles and practice of micro-teaching Session 3: Introduction to principles and practice of micro-teaching. Observing video demonstration lessons
543 Questions relating to issues in this session What is the purpose of micro-teaching?How will micro-teaching in week 4 be organised?What type of things will the micro-teaching focus on?What sort of feedback is built into the process?
544 MicroteachingClass sizeTimeTaskContent…scaled down
546 MicroteachingPlan and teach lesson sequences (tight lesson objectives)Clearly purposeful, integrated phases to plan and deliveryAlternate between ‘learner’/‘observer’ roles‘Learner’ experiential feedback, peer feedback, trainer feedback
547 Returning to our question What type of things will the micro-teaching focus on?Choose four areas in which you are most keen to try out new techniques looked at over this courseStaging Pacing TTT InstructionsEliciting Questioning CorrectingDrilling Giving Feedback ModellingBoard skills Materials handlingWriting Lesson ObjectivesSelecting resources Linking activities