4 Behavioral Psychologists Edward ThorndikeIvan PavlovB.F. Skinner
5 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Primarily for adult learnersTeaching to specific levels of learner performanceMeasurement of observable target behaviorsEmphasis on:Specifying behavior objectivesAnalyzing learning tasksIntroduction to ISD
6 Cognitive Psychology Principles Places emphasis on the observable constructs of:MindMemoryAttitudesMotivationThinkingReflection
7 Cognitive Psychology 2 Early Theories Semantic NetworksSchema TheoryDeveloped by Sir Frederic Bartlett
8 Cognitive Psychology Considerations for Multimedia Design and Evaluation Perception and AttentionEncodingMemoryComprehensionActive LearningMotivationLocus of ControlMental ModelsMetacognitionTransfer of LearningIndividual Differences
9 Cognitive Psychology Perception & Attention Information must be easy to receive.Position of information affects our attention to it and perception of it.Differences and changes attract and maintain our attention
10 Cognitive Psychology Encoding Format of information in environmentMedium of informationInterrelationship of different informational elementsMayer’s Multimedia EffectExample: Verbal - English or SpanishVisual or AuralDual coding theory - leaning is enhanced when complimentary information codes are received simultaneously
11 Cognitive Psychology Memory Principle of OrganizationInformation is remembered better and longer when:information is organized,when organization is imposed on it,when learner is made aware of it.More powerful than the repetition principlePrinciple of RepetitionThe more information is practiced and used, the better and longer it is remembered.Use when organization principle is impossible
12 Cognitive Psychology Comprehension More than definitionLearner has ability to:Apply knowledgeClassify informationEvaluateDiscuss itManipulate itTeach it to othersVerbal Comprehension – restate in your own wordsComprehension of Concepts – distinguish between examples and non-examplesComprehension of Rules and Principles – when to apply, demonstrate correct application
13 Cognitive Psychology Active Learning Learn by doing – not observingActions to facilitate learner goals:Human to computerHuman to humanHuman to computer to humanHuman to paperHuman to equipmentDesign interaction strategiesAre actions mental or physicalHow much mental or physical effort action requiresMental or physical action is automatic or intentionalExtent to which actions support tasks
15 Cognitive Psychology Locus of Control Whether control of sequence, content, methodology, an other instructional factors are determined by the learner, the program or a combination of the two.High achieving learners = greater controlLow achieving learners = less control
16 Cognitive Psychology Mental Models Representations in working memory that can be run by the learner to understand a system, solve a problem or predict events.Conceptual models develop good mental models.
17 Cognitive Psychology Metacognition Awareness of one’s cognitionMetamemory – awareness of how well one remembersMetacomprehension – awareness of how well one understandsGood LearnersPoor LearnersCognitionHighLowMetacognitionHigh or Low
18 Cognitive Psychology Transfer of Learning Extent to which performance in one situation is reflected in anotherNear transfer – applying info in similar situationsFar transfer - use info in very different situations
19 Cognitive Psychology Individual Differences Capability to individualize learning style and cognitive style.
20 Cognitive Influence on Interactive Multimedia Design Designers must address:Screen design and presentation strategiesTheories of attention and perceptionIncorporate motivational principles
21 Constructivist Psychology Principles Knowledge is constructed in our heads.Emphasizes:Learning not teachingActions & thinking of learners, not teachersActive learningLearner choiceNegotiation of goals, strategies & evaluationDiscovery or guided discovery methodsLearner construction of infoPersonal autonomyAccept & reflect on complexity of the worldSituated cognition & anchored instructionCooperative & collaborative activitiesPurposeful authentic activitiesLearner reflectionOwnership of learning and activitiesAuthentic – relevant activities
23 Constructivist Psychology Discovery Learning Learner explores, experiments, researches, questions & seeks answersGuided or structured discovery environmentsTeachers & learners as partners in the research experience
24 Constructivist Psychology Situated Learning & Anchored Instruction Learning always occurs in some contextContext significantly affects learningAnchored InstructionLearning environment should be embedded in real world context with real imagery, goals, problems and activities
25 Constructivist Psychology Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Cooperative LearningLearners help each otherDifferent projectsDifferent goalsCollaborative LearningLearners work on a shared projectSame goals
26 Constructivist Psychology Autonomy, Choice & Negotiation Learners given choices in their activitiesLearners are autonomous in their actionsLearners & instructors negotiate goals and activities
27 Constructivist Psychology Reflection & Strategic Thinking Environment should foster learning and learning how to learn
28 Constructivist Psychology Reflecting on the Complexity of the World Knowledge and skills taught should be:Transferable to other environmentsRelevant to the learnerReal world situations
29 Constructivist Influence on Interactive Multimedia Design Traditional methods – Tutorial, drillsHypermedia, simulations, virtual reality, open-ended learning environmentsExplore, apply their own learning style & use software as a resourcePoor for developing life long learnersMore benefit to learnerLearner not the teacher
30 Criticisms of Behaviorism Not appropriate for multimedia designISDLearner responsesDoes not includeLearner SatisfactionSelf worthCreativitySocial ValuesAttention only to observable learner behaviorNon-motivating & non-transferableReactive not proactive
31 Criticisms of Cognitivism Strayed too far from active learningEducational software has too much reading, watching & listeningUndervalue the principles of reinforcement
32 Criticisms of Objectivism or Instructivism Does not promote collaboration, self autonomy, active learning or transfer of informationDoes support the “Banking Method” (Freire, 1970).
33 Criticisms of Constructivism They feel that tutorial & drill activities are never appropriateConstructivist methods work better for learners with well developed metacognitive skillsGood for individual activities – not whole schoolAdvocates replacing current system through revolution not evolution
34 People to Know Constructivists Behaviorists Hannafin Bransford Reeves BereiterBehavioristsDickRieberReigeluthJacobson & Spiro
35 Questions for Discussion What are the implications for the use of computers/multimedia in each theory, Behaviorism, Cognitivism & Constructivism?Which psychological principles (behaviorist, cognitivist or constructivist) do you use in your classrooms and why?
36 References Alessi, S.M. & Trollip, S.R. (2001). Learning principles and approaches. InMultimedia for learning; methods anddevelopment (pp ). Boston: Allyn& Bacon.Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (p. 53). New York: Continuum.