Behavioral Psychology Principles Basic Behavioral Rules Positive Reinforcement – Increases Frequency Remove Negative Reinforcement – Increases Frequency Negative Reinforcement – Decreases Frequency Remove Positive Reinforcement – Decreases Frequency (extinction)
Behavioral Psychologists Edward Thorndike Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner
Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Primarily for adult learners Teaching to specific levels of learner performance Measurement of observable target behaviors Emphasis on: Specifying behavior objectives Analyzing learning tasks Introduction to ISD
Cognitive Psychology Principles Places emphasis on the observable constructs of: Mind Memory Attitudes Motivation Thinking Reflection
Cognitive Psychology 2 Early Theories Semantic Networks Schema Theory Developed by Sir Frederic Bartlett
Cognitive Psychology Considerations for Multimedia Design and Evaluation Perception and Attention Encoding Memory Comprehension Active Learning Motivation Locus of Control Mental Models Metacognition Transfer of Learning Individual Differences
Cognitive Psychology Perception & Attention Information must be easy to receive. Position of information affects our attention to it and perception of it. Differences and changes attract and maintain our attention
Cognitive Psychology Encoding Format of information in environment Medium of information Interrelationship of different informational elements Mayers Multimedia EffectMayers Multimedia Effect Example: Verbal - English or Spanish Visual or Aural Dual coding theory - leaning is enhanced when complimentary information codes are received simultaneously
Cognitive Psychology Memory Principle of Organization Information is remembered better and longer when: information is organized, when organization is imposed on it, when learner is made aware of it. More powerful than the repetition principle Principle of Repetition The more information is practiced and used, the better and longer it is remembered. Use when organization principle is impossible
Cognitive Psychology Comprehension More than definition Learner has ability to: Apply knowledge Classify information Evaluate Discuss it Manipulate it Teach it to others Verbal Comprehension – restate in your own words Comprehension of Concepts – distinguish between examples and non-examples Comprehension of Rules and Principles – when to apply, demonstrate correct application
Cognitive Psychology Active Learning Learn by doing – not observing Actions to facilitate learner goals: Human to computer Human to human Human to computer to human Human to paper Human to equipment Design interaction strategies Are actions mental or physical How much mental or physical effort action requires Mental or physical action is automatic or intentional Extent to which actions support tasks
Cognitive Psychology Motivation Malones Motivation Theory Kellers ARCS Motivation TheoryKellers ARCS Motivation Theory Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction
Cognitive Psychology Locus of Control Whether control of sequence, content, methodology, an other instructional factors are determined by the learner, the program or a combination of the two. High achieving learners = greater control Low achieving learners = less control
Cognitive Psychology Mental Models Representations in working memory that can be run by the learner to understand a system, solve a problem or predict events. Conceptual models develop good mental models.
Cognitive Psychology Metacognition Awareness of ones cognition Metamemory – awareness of how well one remembers Metacomprehension – awareness of how well one understands Good LearnersPoor Learners CognitionHighLow MetacognitionHigh or Low
Cognitive Psychology Transfer of Learning Extent to which performance in one situation is reflected in another Near transfer – applying info in similar situations Far transfer - use info in very different situations
Cognitive Psychology Individual Differences Capability to individualize learning style and cognitive style.learning style cognitive style
Cognitive Influence on Interactive Multimedia Design Designers must address: Screen design and presentation strategies Theories of attention and perception Incorporate motivational principles
Constructivist Psychology Principles Knowledge is constructed in our heads. Emphasizes: Learning not teaching Actions & thinking of learners, not teachers Active learning Learner choice Negotiation of goals, strategies & evaluation Discovery or guided discovery methods Learner construction of info Personal autonomy Accept & reflect on complexity of the world Situated cognition & anchored instruction Cooperative & collaborative activities Purposeful authentic activities Learner reflection Ownership of learning and activities Authentic – relevant activities
Constructivist Psychology Discovery Learning Learner explores, experiments, researches, questions & seeks answers Guided or structured discovery environments Teachers & learners as partners in the research experience
Constructivist Psychology Situated Learning & Anchored Instruction Situated Learning Learning always occurs in some context Context significantly affects learning Anchored Instruction Learning environment should be embedded in real world context with real imagery, goals, problems and activities
Constructivist Psychology Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Cooperative Learning Learners help each other Different projects Different goals Collaborative Learning Learners work on a shared project Same goals
Constructivist Psychology Autonomy, Choice & Negotiation Learners given choices in their activities Learners are autonomous in their actions Learners & instructors negotiate goals and activities
Constructivist Psychology Reflection & Strategic Thinking Environment should foster learning and learning how to learn
Constructivist Psychology Reflecting on the Complexity of the World Knowledge and skills taught should be: –Transferable to other environments –Relevant to the learner –Real world situations
Constructivist Influence on Interactive Multimedia Design Traditional methods – Tutorial, drills Hypermedia, simulations, virtual reality, open-ended learning environments Explore, apply their own learning style & use software as a resource Poor for developing life long learners More benefit to learner Learner not the teacher
Criticisms of Behaviorism Not appropriate for multimedia design ISD Learner responses Does not include –Learner Satisfaction –Self worth –Creativity –Social Values Attention only to observable learner behavior Non-motivating & non- transferable Reactive not proactive
Criticisms of Cognitivism Strayed too far from active learning Educational software has too much reading, watching & listening Undervalue the principles of reinforcement
Criticisms of Objectivism or Instructivism Does not promote collaboration, self autonomy, active learning or transfer of information Does support the Banking Method (Freire, 1970).
Criticisms of Constructivism They feel that tutorial & drill activities are never appropriate Constructivist methods work better for learners with well developed metacognitive skills Good for individual activities – not whole school Advocates replacing current system through revolution not evolution
People to Know Constructivists –Hannafin –Bransford –Reeves –Bereiter Behaviorists –Dick –Rieber –Reigeluth –Jacobson & Spiro
Questions for Discussion 1.What are the implications for the use of computers/multimedia in each theory, Behaviorism, Cognitivism & Constructivism? 2.Which psychological principles (behaviorist, cognitivist or constructivist) do you use in your classrooms and why?
References Alessi, S.M. & Trollip, S.R. (2001). Learning principles and approaches. In Multimedia for learning; methods and development (pp ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (p. 53). New York: Continuum.