Republic of Texas is Born March 2, 1836 Interim Government David G. Burnet – President Lorenzo de Zavala – Vice President
David G. Burnet Interim President Interim = Temporary
Sam Houston Elected to 2 terms Sympathetic to American Indians Favored Annexation Down-sized military Financial cutbacks Tried to decommission the Texas Navy a 2 nd time
Mirabeau B. Lamar The Education President Against annexation Massive debt – Issued Redbacks (Texas Money) Moved capitol from Houston to Austin Hostile toward American Indians Supported Texas expansion separate from the U.S.
Anson Jones Obtained recognition of the Republic of Texas The Silent President secretly promoted annexation Decommissioned the Texas Navy President of Texas at the time of annexation.
Texas Rangers A group of law enforcement officers originally formed by Stephen F. Austin to keep peace in the colonies The least expensive way to protect the Texas frontier
Edwin Moore Commander of Texas Navy in 1839 Suspended then court- martialed by Houston- found not guilty Wrote book To the People of Texas (personal vindication) Prosecuted financial claims against Texas
Jack Coffee Hays Noted Indian fighter Commanded 1 st Regiment of Texas Mounted volunteers One of the most dangerous & influential Texas Ranger Sided with Anglos in all disputes
Chief Bowles Known as Peace Chief United several Cherokee tribes Petitioned the Spanish for a land grant for Cherokee inhabited land in east Texas. Expelled by Mirabeau Lamar and died while resisting expulsion at the Battle of Neches
William Goyens Keen business man Father was a free mulatto, and his mother was a white women Cherokee interpreter – helped negotiate treaty with Sam Houston One of the few free African- Americans in Texas
Mary Maverick Alabama born Texas pioneer, attorney, wife, mother, activist Kept detailed diaries of her experiences on the Texas frontier and later turned them in to memoirs
Jose Antonio Navarro 1 of the 3 Mexican signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence Only Hispanic delegate to the convention of 1845 Texas State Senator
Cordova Rebellion Plot of rebellion against the Republic of Texas - 1838
Cordova Rebellion East Texas group who was loyal to Mexico were not allowed to assemble or carry arms. Vicente Cordova & followers proclaimed they would not tolerate violations of their rights. Rusk allied with Lamar – no members of Cordovas group were arrested and went into hiding. Thomas Rusk ordered 150 men to proceed toward Cherokee territory to find the insurrectionists against Houstons orders
Cordova Rebellion Cordova & Chief Bowles allied with Mexico to harass Texas 33 insurrectionists with Spanish surnames were arrested for Treason The Cherokee War & removal of indians began shortly after
Council House Fight This incident contributed to continued frontier violence
Council House Fight 1840 - Comanche peace representatives arrived in San Antonio where Texans demanded release of white captives, and ordered Comanches out of Central Texas. Comanches returned with a few prisoners – Texans demanded the rest of the captives be released Texas soldiers entered the Council House where negotiations were going on and held the Chiefs hostage until prisoners were returned.
Council House Fight Texan soldiers killed most of the Comanches in the Council House courtyard
Santa Fe Expedition 1841 – Mirabeau Lamars attempt to divert trade from the Santa Fe Trail to Texas and to exert political control of the New Mexico settlements by having them join the Republic of Texas.
Santa Fe Expedition Congress would not approve the idea so Lamar offered merchants protection of their goods. Lamar and other Texans accused Juan Seguin of being a spy for Mexico, causing him to flee Texas for Mexico. This renewed interest in Texas by the US and Mexico. Essentially Lamars appointees supported Mexico and the whole expedition and trade route fell into Mexican hands
Texas Navy Launched in 1836 to protect lines between US & Texas with the purchase and commission of 4 vessels By 1837 all ships had been lost at sea, run aground, captured or sold to settle repair bills The Republic purchased 6 more ships that defended the Texas coast until a truce signed with Mexico in 1843 and then the US agreed to protect Texas
Public Debt Republic of Texas inherited debt from the provisional and ad interim governments in the form of loans & claims for services and supplies. More than doubled during Houstons first presidency, (1.2 million to 3.25 million) Lamars presidency added another 4.85 million. Through many attempts to lower debt at the time of annexation public debt had risen to 12 million and was absorbed by the US.
Roles of Racial & Ethnic Groups Anglos – Took the majority of the leadership roles during the Revolution & Republic Era Indians – Frontier wars – in conflict with Anglos over land. Most were expelled from Texas during Lamars Presidency
Roles of Racial & Ethnic Groups Mexicans – Tejanos served in the Texas army and served as liaison between Mexicans and Anglos/ Mexicans fought against Texans and viewed them as traitors. Many Mexicans lost their land and left Texas because they no longer felt wanted. African-Americans – Slaves and/ or supporting Anglos in the Revolution - later buffalo soldiers
Location of the Capitol Lack of Recognition Slavery Became an issue for annexation, split the population. Constant battle for Texas administration which prevented the standing of Texas for financial issues, left Texas vulnerable for invasion Disputes between Houston & Lamar on location of capitol prevented focus on greater issues & incurred expenses for the change in capito l
Issues Unrest in the Army Conflicts with American Indians Public Debt Texas could not afford operating expenses, annexation could solve debt problems. Couldnt collect tariffs on foreign goods Safety of citizens, expense for protection, added to unrest and vulnerability for invasion Unreliable protection due to furloughs and postponed salaries. Houston fired soldiers who wanted to fight Mexico
Issues Border Disputes with Mexico Since Texas had problems with the Army, protection and invasion became an issue, annexation could provide military protection. No-mans land (area between Nueces & Rio Grande since both countries claimed different borders Other Issues U.S. President James K. Polk supported Texas annexation U.S. settlers wanted Texas fertile land American merchants wanted Texas as a stop on their way to the ports of California Massive public debt caused Texans to need financial support from the US Frontier wars and threat of invasion from Mexico presented the need for protection by the US