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The Early Career Paths and Employment Conditions of the Academic Profession in Seventeen Countries Academia Europaea & Compagnia di San Paolo Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Career Paths and Employment Conditions of the Academic Profession in Seventeen Countries Academia Europaea & Compagnia di San Paolo Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Early Career Paths and Employment Conditions of the Academic Profession in Seventeen Countries Academia Europaea & Compagnia di San Paolo Conference Diversification of Higher Education & the Academic Profession Torino, March 2009 Alice Bennion & William Locke, Centre for Higher Education Research & Information (CHERI)

2 Presentation outline Introduction: National differences & common drivers Early career paths of academics Employment conditions & pay Support for academic work & research collaboration Concluding comments & specific issues

3 Introduction: National differences Modes of preparation & training for the academic professions Recruitment & promotion practices Employment legislation Labour relations Forms, patterns & levels of remuneration Status & security of different segments of the profession

4 Introduction: Common drivers, impacts & responses Drivers: Impacts: Responses: Expansion Pressure on resourcesProfessionalisation MassificationIncreased demandsMobility InternationalisationNational interconnectionsFlexibility - Globalisation Declining status casualisation Marketisation Specialisation Segmentation

5 Introduction: the CAP survey Importance of national & international contexts for analysis Complexities of comparative interpretation Definitions & consistency in use of terms Data not yet weighted Official national statistics might replace some CAP data

6 Early career paths of academics Degrees obtained Degrees obtained in country of current employment Characteristics of academic flows between national HE systems Age when degrees obtained Preparation for the academic profession

7 Early career paths: Doctoral degrees obtained 21-30%Mexico 31-40%Argentina, China, Malaysia 41-50%Finland, Italy 51-60%Brazil 61-70%Norway 71-80%Portugal, Australia, UK, Germany, Japan 81-90%Hong Kong, US %Canada, Korea

8 Early career paths: Degrees obtained in country of current employment Nationality/citizenship at birth & at First degree Six territories where more than 15% obtained their first degree from another country: Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Norway, UK Hong Kong is the only territory where a minority obtained their First degree there

9 Early career paths: Country where Doctoral degree obtained (%) Hong Kong JapanGermanyChinaOtherCanadaAustraliaUKUS Malaysia CanadaJapanOtherAustraliaUSUK Korea UKChinaOtherJapanGermanyUS Mexico ItalyJapanGermanyBrazilCanadaUKUSOther

10 Early career paths: characteristics of academic flows Study abroad Magnetic Self-contained

11 Early career paths: Age when Doctoral degrees obtained Age 29-30UK, Italy 31-32Germany, Canada, Japan, US 33-34Hong Kong, Australia, China, Korea 35-36Finland, Malaysia, Norway, Argentina, Portugal 37-38Brazil, Mexico

12 Early career paths: Preparation for the academic profession Huge variations in form, duration, funding & status of doctoral programmes: Choice of research topic Requirement to write a thesis Prescribed set of courses Intensity of faculty guidance Involvement in research projects Training for teaching Service on a committee Financial support/status: scholarship/fellowship/employment

13 Employment conditions Public servant or private employee Institutions: public & private mix Method of regulating the employment relationship – national collective bargaining – institutional employment regulations – individual/group bargaining Tenure: its form & strength

14 Modes of employment: full-time 51-60%Argentina, Brazil 61-70% % %Germany, Finland, Australia, UK %Mexico, Norway, Portugal, US, Hong Kong, Canada, China, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Korea

15 Modes of employment: part-time, paid according to work tasks 0%Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Norway, Portugal 1-10%Argentina, China, UK, US, Hong Kong (1%) 11-20% % %Brazil

16 Modes of employment: part-time 1-10%Japan, Korea, Canada, China, Malaysia, Italy, Hong Kong, Portugal, US, Finland, Norway, UK, Mexico 11-20%Brazil, Australia, Germany 21-30% % %Argentina

17 Volume of part-time as a percentage of full-time * % of academics employed part-time in brackets after each country

18 Duration of employment: permanent/ continuous 21-30%Argentina 31-40% %Hong Kong, Finland 51-60%Portugal, Korea 61-70%Germany, Australia 71-80%US, Canada, Norway, China 81-90%Malaysia, Mexico, Japan %(UK), Brazil

19 Duration of employment: fixed-term 1-10%Brazil, Japan, Malaysia, UK 11-20%Mexico 21-30%China, Norway, Canada, US 31-40%Finland, Australia, Germany 41-50%Korea, Portugal 51-60%Hong Kong 61-79% %Argentina

20 Pay 1: Annual Gross Income (mean, US$)

21 Pay 2: Overall Average Monthly Salaries US$ 2005/06 (from Rumbley et al, 2008)

22 Other benefits Pensions Loans Travel Accommodation Income from other employment Earnings from self-employment High degree of autonomy Interesting work Esteem of other scholars

23 Support for academic work Higher ratings for telecommunications, libraries & computing facilities Lower ratings for research funding and research & teaching support 1992/2007: Hong Kong academics still satisfied; Japan & Korea least satisfied Where different, senior academics are more satisfied than junior staff

24 Research collaboration Respondents in all countries (apart from Portugal) are more likely to collaborate than work alone Over half the respondents were collaborating with colleagues at other institutions within the same country (except for China) In half the countries a majority of respondents are collaborating with international colleagues Finland, Norway and Hong Kong are slightly more likely to collaborate internationally than within their own country Relative insularity of US respondents

25 Concluding comments Importance of national & local interpretation of responses Regional developments (e.g. EHEA, ERA) Impacts of international flows between South & North Overall demand for highly qualified expertise

26 Specific issues & questions Links between: international mobility during training/early career & current level of international research collaboration? flexible employment conditions & opportunities for mobile young academics (& implications for less mobile mature academics)? national circumstances beyond HE & mobility: potential for regional/international action?

27 William Locke Assistant Director Centre for Higher Education Research & Information The Open University 44 Bedford Row London WC1R 4LL Tel: +44 (0)

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