Causes? Family, education, memberships Urban design and transport, mobility, scale, social and ethnic heterogeneity History, culture, social structures & hierarchy, economic inequality Labour market trends, TV and individualised consumption, individual values
How?...Micro-level Millennium Volunteers (16-24) Connexions (13-19) Family & parenting support Mentoring - early and whole group Potential offenders - positive experiences Volunteering - short but adventurous? Other - personal relationships?
How?...Meso-level Homezones; housing mix; devolution... community asset- based welfare; ICT communities built environment chains out of poverty Other - regional, study groups...
How?...Macro-level Citizenship education; Public service broadcasting service learning - 14-19? community service credit schemes discourse - deliberative forums, soaps, discursive education mutual respect - barriers, citizens juries, listen to youth other - regional football, mobile phones
Conclusions Policy and academic interest Strong exclusion story NE has relatively low sc Optimise - not maximise
Future research questions Measurement: bridging, bonding, variations Trends… and functional equivalence Diversity Relation to political trust and engagement What works? Whos issue?