Presentation on theme: "Social capital, exclusion, and the North East IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006 Dr. David Halpern, Prime Ministers Strategy Unit."— Presentation transcript:
Social capital, exclusion, and the North East IPPR North, 7th Sept 2006 Dr. David Halpern, Prime Ministers Strategy Unit
Social capital What is it? Why does it matter? How the NE doing? What can we do to build it?
Definition Coleman (1988) Bourdieu (1992) Putnam (1993-2002) World Bank Networks, Norms, Sanctions
Social trust Wide variations Ongoing work
Why is it important?
Economic effects Individual: Employment and earnings; Meso: NY diamond market, firms; Macro:national & regional differences; Path:transaction costs & information.
Health Indiv: social support - longitudinal data Meso: Roseto, Finland Macro:US states, but nations? Path:stress reaction and support
Crime Indiv: personal histories, prison Meso: neighbourhood and peer effects Macro:US states, national differences Path:social control and respect
…and fear Fear often has little relationship to risk... …but a strong relationship to social trust.
Education Indiv: family influences Meso: school & other ecological effects Macro:US states, OECD literacy Path:aspiration
Government Indiv: housing self-management Meso: Italian case + Macro:national -> supra-national Path:virtuous citizens
The middle class have more MenWomen British Household Panel Survey, 1999. From Li, Savage and Pickles, 2003
The deprived see their neighbours more, but trust them less
Dark side Social capital isnt always good... Indiv: Peer groups (sometimes) Meso: Mafia; class Macro:Ethnic conflict
How is the NE doing?
Give regular (monthly) informal voluntary help (4th/10)
If a child was being rude to an adult, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it (7th/10)
If a children spray-painting graffiti on a local building, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it (9th/10)
Give any regular (monthly) activity – civic, formal/informal volunteering (9th/10)
If a group of local children playing truant from school, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it (9th/10)
If there was a fight near my home and someone was being beaten up/threatened, people in my local neighbourhood would be very likely to do something about it (9th/10)
many of the people in my neighbourhood can be trusted (9th/10)
Any civil renewal activities* in past 12 months? (10th/10) * Includes membership of local decision-making groups
Give regular (monthly) formal voluntary help (10th/10)
People in my neighbourhood would be very likely to participate if asked by a local organisation to help solve a community problem(10th/10)
I agree that I can influence decisions affecting my local area (10th/10)
What can we do?
Causes? Family, education, memberships Urban design and transport, mobility, scale, social and ethnic heterogeneity History, culture, social structures & hierarchy, economic inequality Labour market trends, TV and individualised consumption, individual values
How?...Micro-level Millennium Volunteers (16-24) Connexions (13-19) Family & parenting support Mentoring - early and whole group Potential offenders - positive experiences Volunteering - short but adventurous? Other - personal relationships?
How?...Meso-level Homezones; housing mix; devolution... community asset- based welfare; ICT communities built environment chains out of poverty Other - regional, study groups...
How?...Macro-level Citizenship education; Public service broadcasting service learning - 14-19? community service credit schemes discourse - deliberative forums, soaps, discursive education mutual respect - barriers, citizens juries, listen to youth other - regional football, mobile phones
Conclusions Policy and academic interest Strong exclusion story NE has relatively low sc Optimise - not maximise
Future research questions Measurement: bridging, bonding, variations Trends… and functional equivalence Diversity Relation to political trust and engagement What works? Whos issue?