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ETHNIC DIVERSITY AND THE WELFARE STATE A North American Perspective Keith G. Banting Social Mobility and Life Chances Forum 14 November 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "ETHNIC DIVERSITY AND THE WELFARE STATE A North American Perspective Keith G. Banting Social Mobility and Life Chances Forum 14 November 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 ETHNIC DIVERSITY AND THE WELFARE STATE A North American Perspective Keith G. Banting Social Mobility and Life Chances Forum 14 November 2005

2 A Progressives Dilemma? Are immigration and multiculturalism policies eroding the welfare state? Diversity versus Redistribution? Crowding out/Corroding/Collateral damage/Misdiagnosis Recognition versus Redistribution? Multiculturalism polices exacerbate tensions

3 The U.S. Experience An Emerging Master Narrative Race and the U.S. welfare state The politics of social programs Backlash against multiculturalism policies Public attitudes to race and social redistribution

4 Politics of Social Policy in the U.S. Race, Recognition and Redistribution The Politics of Social Security in the 1930s The War on Poverty in the 1960s Ending Welfare as We Knew it in the 1990s Backlash against multiculturalism policies

5 Public Attitudes and Social Capital Gilens: Why Americans hate welfare Alberto Alesina et al race and trust Robert Putnam and Social Capital bridging and bonding hunkering down

6 From Exceptionalism to Master Narrative Race and U.S. exceptionalism –A distinctive American pattern? –Myrdal, An American Dilemma (1944) The U.S. as the quintessential case –U.S. experience as evidence of a universal pattern? –Glazer, Exceptional No Longer (1998)

7 Counter Narratives I Canada

8 Ethnicity and Trust in Canada

9 Ethnicity and Support for Redistribution in Canada Virtually no relationship Sensitivity of minorities, not majorities No evidence of majority turning away

10 Explaining Canadian Experience Canadian multicultural identity Legitimation of difference Immigrant economic integration Traditional pattern of economic integration Emerging problems in the 1980s and 1990s Immigrant political integration High levels of naturalization Identity convergence over time

11 Low-income among Immigrants

12 Political Integration Sense of pride in Canada

13 Citizenship Ceremonies in Toronto

14 In Vancouver and Halifax

15 Counter Narratives II Immigration and Social Spending Immigration and social spending across OECD Social spending as % of GDP Size of foreign-born population Levels versus change over time

16 Foreign-Born Population and Social Spending, 2000

17 Change in Foreign-Born Population and Change in Social Spending OECD Countries,

18 Diversity versus Redistribution? Race and redistribution: –tension in some societies (US) Immigration: –Level of foreign born population not an issue –Pace of change does seem to mater

19 Counter Narratives III Recognition and Redistribution A trade-off between recognition and redistribution? Historical pattern: attempts to assimilate immigrants Multicultural policies of last decades of 2oth century Controversy over multiculturalism policies

20 Multiculturalism Policies (1)formal affirmation of multiculturalism (2) multiculturalism in school curriculum (3) ethnic representation in the media (4) exemptions from dress-codes, etc. (5) allowing dual citizenship (6) funding of ethnic groups (7) funding of bilingual education (8) affirmative action

21 Multiculturalism Policies and Change in Social Spending,

22 Multiculturalism Policies and Change in Redistribution,

23 BETWEEN IMMIGRATION AND REDISTRIBUTION We need to understand the role of: The nature of the immigration flow Economic integration of immigrants Political integration of immigrants Structure of the welfare state

24 CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS Challenging ideas of universal tradeoffs The danger of master narratives The importance of counter narrative

25 Thank You


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