Presentation on theme: "Crime and policing after devolution Dr Rick Muir Institute for Public Policy Research."— Presentation transcript:
Crime and policing after devolution Dr Rick Muir Institute for Public Policy Research
What Ill cover Common challenges Approaches to crime and policing in the different nations Innovations Outcomes
Common challenges A more demanding role Higher public expectations Changing pattern of crime Rise of anti-social behaviour Globalisation – crime across borders Technological change Policing in a recession
Approaches to crime and policing England and Wales Increased police funding for more bobbies and the beat to improve public confidence Neighbourhood policing and greater citizen focus Widening the police family through recruitment of PCSOs Centralised performance management to drive improvement Wider reach: new powers to tackle anti-social behaviour Consolidation and greater capacity at the national level to tackle serious and organised crime: the Serious and Organised Crime Agency and the National Policing Improvement Agency High imprisonment rate
Approaches to crime and policing Scotland Increased funding and rising police numbers (including SNP promise of 1,000 extra) No PCSOs, though increase in number of local authority wardens No structured community policing programme – a patchwork of local approaches, commitment varies across the 8 forces, though they are required to report on community engagement Anti-social behaviour: a less punitive approach Community Justice Authorities: 8 to deliver all offender management services and reduce re-offending, governed by elected members Enhanced central capacity: the Scottish Police Services Authority to run backroom services and manage the Scottish Crime and Drug Enforcement Agency. Focus on alcohol misuse – higher levels of consumption than rest of UK Imprisonment rate that is almost as high as E&W
Approaches to crime and policing Northern Ireland PSNI established in 2001 following Patten Report as a new force that could command respect across communities Accountability: operational responsibility codified, cross-community Policing Board holds CC to account, District Policing Partnerships hold local police to account. Neighbourhood policing strategy, similar to E&W. Performance management by the Policing Board and use of crime targets, similar to E&W. Under aged drinking and young people causing a nuisance currently the two biggest concerns in both communities. Paramilitary activity way down the list. Unlike other parts of UK there is pressure from London to reduce police numbers
Innovations England and Wales Neighbourhood policing: March 2008 3,600 neighbourhood policing teams in E&W Geographically rooted and accessible teams of PCs, PCSOs and wardens Public engagement through Safer Neighbourhoods Panels or the equivalent, priority setting through new Policing Pledge National Reassurance Policing Programme found that this approach led to significantly higher falls in perceptions of ASB and public confidence in the police than elsewhere Public confidence in the police is increasing in E&W
Innovations Scotland Youth offending Scotland has long embraced a more welfare based as opposed to punitive approach to youth offending eg) childrens hearings for under 16s Currently raising the age of criminal responsibility to 12 ASBOs are used less frequently in Scotland – and in particular rarely against children. The use of ASBOs for 12-15 year olds in Scotland must complement the Children's Hearing System - children under 16 cannot be detained for breaching ASBOs in Scotland. Scotlands ASB strategy imposes requirements for support packages to be in place before ASBOs can be imposed.
Innovations Northern Ireland Accountability From operational independence to codified operational responsibility – clear division of responsibilities Clear lines of accountability from Police Board down to DPPs
Outcomes England and Wales British Crime Survey: By 2007 overall crime had fallen by 44% since its peak in 1995 1995-2007/08: violent crime (down 48%), vehicle theft (down 66%) and burglary (down 59%) Public confidence in the criminal justice system is low: only 44% are confident it is effective at bringing people to justice Public confidence in the police has fallen: down from 64% 1996 to 48% in 2005 up to 53% 2007/08 Perception gap is widening: 65% say crime in the country as a whole is rising, while only 39% say it is rising in their local area Perception that there is a high level of anti-social behaviour has fallen: 21% in 2002/03 to 16% in 2007/08
Outcomes Scotland Scottish Crime and Victimisation Survey According to ICVS Scotlands crime rate is much lower than that in E&W, though it has a higher homicide rate. Total number of crimes has fluctuated but in 2006 was higher than its 1995 level Vandalism rose from 1992 to a peak in 2002 and has fallen since then, but is still higher than in the early nineties 1992-2006 saw major declines in burglary and vehicle crime as in E&W. But 1992-2006 saw a major rise in violent crime, entirely due to a rise in minor assaults Public satisfaction with police by those reporting incidents : 57% 2006 Crime and ASB among the top 4 issues of concerns in Scotland after drugs and alcohol abuse. Fewer believe that crime in their area is increasing than in E&W (32% to 39%)
Outcomes Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Crime Survey Overall crime victimisation rates have fallen significantly in NI 1998-2007 Big fall in vehicle crime, plus falls in burglary and violent crime 1998-2007 Findings from both NICS 2007/08 and the British Crime Survey (BCS) 2007/08 show that the risk of becoming a victim of crime remains lower in Northern Ireland (13.8%) than in England and Wales (22.1%). Serious public disorder lower In 2008 slightly more Catholics were satisfied with their local police than Protestants High levels of dissatisfaction with level of foot patrols, despite neighbourhood policing
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