Presentation on theme: "DEVOLUTION AND SKILLS POLICY – is any pattern emerging?"— Presentation transcript:
1DEVOLUTION AND SKILLS POLICY – is any pattern emerging? Ewart KeepSKOPE
2THINGS TO BEAR IN MINDPre-devolution, much E&T policy was already devolved and exhibiting fundamental differences – e.g. Wales and Scotland comprehensive education. N.I. – selective, England a complex and evolving mix. Scotland already had its own qualification structure, and no national curriculum, testing regime or league tables. Devolution to some extent = continuation of previous trends.
3THINGS TO BEAR IN MIND - 2The underlying social and economic conditions differed (and continue to differ) across the 4 UK nations (and within them).Wales = 70% English average GVA per head, almost no significant Welsh-owned and HQ’d companies, no meaningful Welsh financial sector. Demand for skills very different from England (or parts thereof – London and SE).
4THINGS TO BEAR IN MIND - 3In terms of £s to spend on E&T policies and institutions, the 4 nations started in a very different place. Per head of population:ScotlandEnglandWales
5THINGS TO BEAR IN MIND - 4The field of E&T policy is extremely unstable – change is occurring all the time, and trends are therefore hard to discern and track.We are currently in a period of general change due to a reframing of the diagnosis of the underlying economic problems that have led to our ‘skills crisis’.
6ISSUES OF SCALEIn comparing England with Scotland, Wales and NI we need to remember that England is (population-wise) a far bigger country – 48 million, run as a unitary authority (at least on E&T policy).Scale impacts on issues such as trust and management style.
7THE RECESSIONAll four UK nations now face the need to change their E&T policies and programmes to meet the issues posed by the onset of deep recession and mass unemployment. In a sense, a common threat tends to produce broadly similar responses (though from different starting points).
8WHAT COULD BE DIVERGING? Underlying ideology and purpose of policy.Institutional and regulatory frameworksCulture of management and controlProgrammes and initiativesOucomes
9UNERLYING IDEOLOGY AND AIMS The gradual collapse of a ‘supply-led’, supply-push model.Scotland got there first – had spent a lot on E&T and started to ask where the results were.Wales – the impossibility and irrelevance of the Leitch 2020 targets.England – UKCES ‘Ambition 2020’ and a shift to an agenda around underlying demand and skill usage.
10INSTITUTIONAL AND REGULATORY SYSTEMS Wales – quangocide and the need for the government to deal direct with stakeholders.Scotland –powerful but shifting quangos (emergence of SDS alongside SFC)England – permanent revolution! Large quangos with no autonomy.
11ENGLAND IN TURMOIL DfEE – DfES – DIUS/DCSF – DCSF and DBIS. FEFC and TECs – LSC – YPLA and SFAALI and Ofsted - OfstedAlso changes to QCA, quality improvement.Unstable fiefdoms based on individual ambition!
12MANAGEMENT AND CULTURE England – extremely low trust, ever more central control and dictat – massive reliance on output targets – participation rates and qualifications gained. Fear is the key! Most centralised E&T system in OECD (possibly excepting Singapore)Scotland – higher trust, more autonomy, much less micro-management by the centre. Issues of scale here.
13PROGRAMMES AND INITIATIVES England – raising the learning age. Scotland and Wales decline (strongly) to follow.England – Train to Gain. Scotland and Wales decline to follow.England – endorses Leitch targets. Scotland and Wales decline to follow.
14OUTCOMESOutcome levels (as expressed by proportions of the workforce with particular levels of qualification) have differed between the countries, as do current trends.There are big variations within countries – by locality and socio-economic group.Scotland is ahead on post-compulsory participation and achievement, but as the Scottish Government has noted, this has not fed through into superior economic performance.
15IS THERE A WINNER?By spending a lot of money, Scotland has produced a higher level of outputs (participation and achievement), plus has funded more non-work-related lifelong learning.BUT, the economic effects of this are hard to find.In terms of levels of trust – Scotland does better than England.Identifying a winner depends on your definition and measure(s) of success!!!!!
16THE EMERGENCE OF UKCESUKCES as a UK-wide internalised policy think tank and policy exchange mechanism. A policy ‘space’ outside government control. Major challenge for English policy makers.A clearing house/transmission mechanism for non-English policy concepts.A UK-wide research agenda.A UK-wide regulator and funder (of the SSCs)
17FUTURE ISSUESPublic spending cuts and their impact on national systems. Scottish FE and HE used to lots of £s. Wales impoverished already.Issues of scale and sustainability – e.g. STEM in Wales.Ongoing institutional instability in England and the impact of the elections.The emergence of closer linkages between economic development policy and E&T policy around skill demand and usage.