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Community Strategies to Address Infant Mortality & Improve Birth Outcomes It takes a village for capacity building
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Agenda Introduction of the Research Project Framing the Research Issues The Case Studies Lessons Learned & Reflections
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan The Public Health Problem According to "Health, United States, 2000," infant mortality rates are more than twice as high for African-Americans. –Stillbirths –Low Birth Weight (10% of African-American Infants) –Pre-term Delivery (20% of African-American Infants) Highest infant mortality rate In the developed world
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan In the Popular Press (Essence Magazine, November 2005; New York Times; April 22, 2007) In Turnabout, Infant Deaths Climb in South
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan The NIH Roadmap is an integrated vision to deepen our understanding of biology, stimulate interdisciplinary research teams, and reshape clinical research to accelerate medical discovery and improve people's health.
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan 'U' study seeks to close gaps in prenatal care (Michigan Daily, October 13, 2004) Closing the gap of disparities has become a major goal for many government agencies, researchers, healthcare organizations and community groups. Although in the past decade prenatal care utilization rates have risen, decreasing the overall infant mortality rate, disparities in infant mortality and other perinatal outcomes between various ethnic and socio-economic groups continue to widen. Moreover, researchers have yet to explain all of the differences in birth outcomes experienced by African-Americans compared to other groups.
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan The Grants Goals Interdisciplinary research infrastructure to solve public health problems. Develop testable hypotheses for new effective approaches to public health problems Provide an effective mechanism for communicating research- based information to policy leaders, providers, and patients. Three core areas: patients, providers and leaders The Research Team ( 17 departments represented at UM) OB/GYN Genetics Nursing Midwifery Public Health Social Work Engineering School of Information Business Sociology Anthropology Medical History
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Why Interdisciplinary Research? – Various Viewpoints Traditional Viewpoints Socio-Economic Status Access to Healthcare Genetics Predisposed Health Problems Contemporary Viewpoints Stress & a Reactive Immune System Gestational Diabetes Preeclampsia Bacteria Infections Racism Segregation Life-course Quality of Healthcare Approach Evidence-based Medicine Cultural Competencies
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Thinking Outside the Box: The University of Michigan Roadmap Teams Interdisciplinary Model
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan The Sojourner Syndrome, Resilience & Reproductive Health (Mullins, 2002; 2005) Race Class Gender Survival Strategy Pre-term Labor Stillbirths Lower Resistance to Infection Low Birth Weight Maternal or Child Health Complications Stress Life Course
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan The Organizational Perspective – Research Questions What are best organizing routines for re-energizing the resilience of African-American women during their pregnancies and producing favorable birth outcomes? What are the capacity building activities and competencies associated with these organizing routines? How can other organizations learn from these positive organizing routines?
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Research Methodology Case Study data collected from state health departments, nonprofit organizations, healthcare organizations and community coalitions. Transcribed and Coded into NVivo Analyzed using a grounded theory approach
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Guiding Theories Organizational Routines Skills and capabilities of organizations and its members; the current best practice in an industry; enable organizations to cope with complex problems (Nelson & Winter, 1982) An executed capability for repeated performance that has been learned in response to selective pressures (Cohen, 1996 ). Positive Organizing (Dutton & Glynn, 2007) Enable organizational resourcefulness Enhance organizational strengths and capabilities Expand organizational action repertoires Collective behavior and relational mechanisms Capacity Building The development of core skills, management practices, strategies, and systems to enhance an organizations effectiveness, sustainability and ability to fulfill its mission (Connolly, 2001)
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Capacity Building in Action: Case Studies of Best Practices Model created by Connolly & Lukas for the Fieldstone Alliance
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Parkland Memorial Hospital (Dallas, Texas) Delivers approximately 17,000 babies a year; 4 out of every 1000 babies born in the Untied States For African American babies, infant mortality rate is roughly half the national average. Ninety-Five percent of women who deliver at Parkland are indigent. Capacity Building Focus: Internal Operations & Management Rigid, codified rules about medical practices. Re-engineered the delivery process for babies because of system overload; positive consequences for patient care. Elaborate hierarchy with 14 different levels, from nurses aides (OB techs) to attending physicians with years of experience. Team approach to directed by protocols for prenatal, care, labor and delivery. The protocol serves as a medicine cookbook based on refining clinical research; gives the system a sense of order.
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Black Infant Health (California) San Diego a Mission Driven Program Focuses on accessing resources and services Targeted to certain zip codes Social support On-staff nurse Monthly rap session for clients Success attributed to common vision and dedication of staff members Reduction in infant mortality rate from 17.9 to 12.3 Started in 1989 by the California Department of Health in response data showing African American Babies death rate tripe of Caucasian babies
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Every Child Succeeds (Cincinnati, Ohio) Adopted best practices in the industry: Every Child Succeeds uses two evidence-based, nationally-established home visitation models: Healthy Families America (HFA) and Nurse Family Partnership. A partnership between public and private organizations Capacity Building Focus: The application of a corporate model Inspired by former CEO of Proctor & Gamble Uses corporate tool Continuous Quality Improvement to boost results Focused and directed programming – areas of highest need and where the organization can make an impact Data intensive – Mothers complete 50 different forms Red/Green chart based on Japanese manufacturing techniques that measures 17 quality indicators, such as staff training, immunization rates, breastfeeding rates, and client satisfaction
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Nurse-Family Partnership (the Olds Model) is an evidence-based nurse home visitation program that improves the health, well-being by focusing on three goals. Registered nurses visit weekly for the first month after enrollment and then every other week until the baby is born. Visits are weekly for the first six weeks after the baby is born, and then every other week through the child's first birthday. Visits continue on an every- other-week basis until the baby is 20 months. The last four visits are monthly until the child is two years old; Visits last 75 to 90 minutes Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Fewer preterm deliveries Fewer low birth weight babies Fewer instances of pregnancy-induced hypertension
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan 1. Improved Pregnancy Outcomes Help clients obtain prenatal care from their physician Help clients reduce their use of cigarettes, alcohol and illegal drugs Teach clients about healthy nutrition during pregnancy 2. Improved Child Health and Development Help parents provide more competent care of their children in the first two years of life Teach parents how to nurture their children Teach parents safe and consistent practices of child discipline Help parents get proper health care for their child 3.Improved Maternal Life Course Development Teach young mothers to keep their lives on track and develop a vision for their own future Help the mothers make reasoned choices about the partners, family and friends who are involved with their child Help mothers plan future pregnancies Help mothers continue their education, reach their educational goals and find adequate employment
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Northern New Jersey Maternal/Child Health Consortium: Black Infant Mortality Reduction Resource Center Approach: Strategic Relationships and Program Delivery Warm-Line for the General Community Including Professionals Outreach, Education, Training at Health Fairs and other Community Events Inform Media Outlets of Latest BIMR Developments in New Jersey Comprehensive Library including Evidence-based Research & Updated Bibliographies Cultural Competency BIMR Education for Clinicians Annual Perinatal Disparities Conferences Technical Assistance to support Regional, State-wide & National BIMR Efforts
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Centering Pregnancy Centering Pregnancy: A group model of prenatal care – empowering clients & professionals. The Centering Pregnancy Program alters routine prenatal care by bringing women out of exam rooms and into groups for their care. Regular meeting of 8-12 women meet through early post-partum.
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Centering Pregnancy Based on patient empowerment Control of their bodies Their pregnancies, Their families Self-care activities of weight, blood pressure, estimation of gestation age Health care provider empowerment Sharing their care-giving with their clients.
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan The Birthing Project USA: The Underground Railroad for New Life Capacity building embedded in visionary leadership, social support and grassroots community engagement. National training programs that focus on: Assessing community needs and resources Strategic planning Building collaborative partnerships Leadership Development Signature Program: Sister to Sister which is designed to is to improve birth outcomes by matching trained volunteers with pregnant women in order to provide support and education.
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan South Carolina – Black Infants Better Survival Funded & Supported by: Government source WIC Healthy Start Program March of Dimes University of South Carolina received a grant Focused on women of child-bearing age, fathers and healthcare providers. Focuses on education and dispelling myths.
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Partnership with Faith Community African Methodist Episcopal ministers wives and widows alliance – Supporting Kids and Infants Into a New Generation Grant from March of Dimes to fund: Infant Mortality Curriculum Vitamins for Brides kits Baby Showers and Baskets for Expecting Parents Oral Health Initiative for Pregnant Women
©Professor Lynn Perry Wooten, May 2007 Ross School of Business, University of Michigan Lessons Learned and Reflections Committed and collective leadership Community Partnerships The importance of collecting and analyzing data Systematic, targeted, and structured programs based on best practices and evaluation The significance of nurses The coordination of services Empowering, educating, holistic, relationship- centered and life-course approaches
THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN 2009
Strategizing to Address Healthcare Disparities Case studies of health system partnerships and capacity building activities Professor Lynn Wooten.
Breastfeeding: A WIC Priority
One Science = Early Childhood Pathway for Healthy Child Development Sentinel Outcomes ALL CHILDREN ARE BORN HEALTHY measured by: rate of infant mortality.
The Silent Epidemic Uniting to Reduce Infant Mortality.
Greenwich Breastfeeding Strategy
Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality November 15, 2012
Preventing Low Birthweight Infants Through Effective Clinical Collaboration Salt Lake Valley Health Department Audrey Stevenson PhD & Iliana MacDonald.
AMCHP 2005 Conference PPOR – Another Opportunity for Local / State Capacity Building The Ohio Story Part I Carolyn Slack – Columbus Health Department.
Healthy North Carolina 2020 Objective: Maternal and Infant Health
LeddyView Graph # 1 OUTLINE Background - RIte Care Rhode Island’s Title XXI Plans RIte Care Benefit Package Experience Impact on Health Care Access, Utilization,
Transformation of MCH Block Grant: A Working Vision Michael C. Lu, MD, MPH Associate Administrator Maternal and Child Health Health Resources and Services.
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR | MISSISSIPPI DIVISION OF MEDICAID1 Babies, Business and the Bottom Line.
CHFS ANNUAL MEETING April 14, 2014 Baby Basics John Ladd, MNO Cuyahoga County Office of Early Childhood Invest in Children.
TOOLS, PLANS AND PROGRAMS FROM ACROSS NORTH CAROLINA AND THE COUNTRY Resources for Our Work.
Our Vision – Healthy Kansans living in safe and sustainable environments.
The Life Course Approach
Interconception Education and Counseling: Strategies from Florida Presented by: Betsy Wood, BSN, MPH Infant, Maternal & Reproductive Health Unit Florida.
There’s a Meeting in the Village: A stress reduction program for Community Health Workers who care for pregnant women of color Kweli R. Walker, MPH Director,
Perinatal services in Medi-Cal Managed Care: strategies to better serve our members 11/5/14 Perinatal Services Coordinator Annual Meeting Maternal, Child.
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