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26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products Michael S. Kaplan Software Design Engineer.

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Presentation on theme: "26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products Michael S. Kaplan Software Design Engineer."— Presentation transcript:

1 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products Michael S. Kaplan Software Design Engineer Trigeminal Software, Inc.

2 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) What are surrogates? " a coded character representation for a single abstract character that consists of a sequence of two code units, where the first unit of the pair is a high surrogate and the second is a low surrogate "

3 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) High/low surrogate? High: U+D800 - U+DBFF Low: U+DC00 - U+DFFF Terminology: – "surrogate pair" preferred over "surrogate character"

4 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Conversion example #1 Example #1: – The first character in the Surrogate range (D800, DC00) as UTF-32: 1. D800: binary (lower ten bits: ) 2.DC00: binary (lower ten bits: ) 3.Concatenate = x Add x10000 Result: U This makes sense, since the first character in the Surrogate range follows immediately after the last character in the 16-bit Unicode range (U+FFFF)

5 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Conversion example #2 Example #2. – You have a Unicode character such as U+2040A (a CJK character in Plane2) and wish to encode it in UTF-16 1.Subtract x Result: 1040A 2.Split into two ten-bit pieces: Add (D800) to the high 10 bits piece ( ) - Result: (D841) 4.Add (DC00) to the low 10 bits piece ( ) - Result: (DC0A) Your surrogate pair: D841, DC0A

6 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) UTF-8 conversions Illegal conversions: six-byte UTF-8 (two surrogate code points of UTF-16, converted separately) legal conversions: four-byte UTF-8 (one UTF-32 code point)

7 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) UTF-8 example Unicode surrogate pair: aaaabbbbbbcccccc, zzzzyyyyyyxxxxxx becomes incorrect UTF-8 total 6 bytes: 1110aaaa 10bbbbbb 10cccccc 1110zzzz 10yyyyyy 10xxxxxx Instead, you should take a Unicode surrogate pair: wwwwzzzzyy, yyyyxxxxxx and convert it to UTF-8 totaling 4 bytes (below, uuuuu is defined as = wwww+1): 11110uuu 10uuzzzz 10yyyyyy 10xxxxxx

8 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Encoding choices for MS UTF-16, mostly Occasionally UTF-8 Even more occasionally, UTF-32 REASONS: There was obviously an existing, well-tested set of APIs that support UCS-2, which is a total subset of UTF-16. A completely new API set was not required. A move to UTF-32 would require twice as much space for all characters. A move to UTF-8 would require even more than twice as much space in many cases.

9 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) The products... Mostly the new generation of products: – Windows 2000/XP – Office XP (some support in Office 2000) Most of these products supported Unicode already – a little bit of extra work needed for surrogate pairs – usually just UTF-8 support needed

10 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Windows 2000/XP Uniscribe/GDI+ support for rendering Each surrogate pair is a single grapheme APIs like CharPrev/CharNext not changed Extensions to fallback fonts in XP Font CMAP extensions in XP Lots of UTF-8 issues fixed in XP No specific surrogate font/IME (yet)

11 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Collation for Supplementary chacacters All Plane-1 (non-ideographic) characters sort after all the other non-ideographic scripts but before the ideographs. All Plane 2 (ideographic) characters will be sorted after all the ideographs on the BMP. All Plane 3-14 (currently not assigned) will be treated like any other unassigned characters. (includes plane 14 language tags) All characters encoded in Plane (private use) will be sorted after all other characters.

12 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Other system components MLang Internet Explorer IIS 5.0/6.0

13 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) The downlevel story No good support for Unicode, let along supplementary characters Uniscribe/RichEdit does improve the downlevel story for display purposes, at least Officially, no surrgoate support on Win9x

14 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) The Office suite Word Frontpage Excel/Access Outlook RichEdit 4.0

15 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Specific Features Insertion/Deletion of text - All Cursor movement - All Font linking/fallback - All (Word's is best) UTF-8 issues fixed - All Enhanced word breaking - All (Word/RichEdit) Vertical text - Word/PowerPoint/Publisher/RichEdit Direct entry (Alt+nnnnnn, hhhhh + Alt+x) - Word/RichEdit

16 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) CHS/CHT/CHP Office The product and the langpacks support an extended Unicode IME that handles supplementary characters An Extension B font is also included

17 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Visual Studio[.NET] String class and globalization namespace StringInfo GetTextElementEnumerator – Handles supplementary characters – Also handles composite characters GDI+ IDE support

18 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) SQL Server Past - no support Present - surrogate "safe" (neutral) Future - surrogate awaree

19 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Items not supported Character Map Graph 10 Outlook 10 mail headers Collations for supplementary characters Fonts/IMEs

20 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Questions?

21 26 April 2001 Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products, IUC 18 (Hong Kong) Surrogate Support in Microsoft Products


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