Presentation on theme: "Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Identifying and Assessing Benchmarks in the Sequence of Psychology Education and TrainingNadya A. Fouad, Ph.D.University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
2 THANK YOUMany thanks to Cathi Grus, APA Education Directorate and Nadine Kaslow, Emory University and the members of the Benchmarks Workgroup and Assessment Workgroup for their hard work and contributions to competency movement
3 CasesStudent A: Applying for internship. Faculty in the program have had concerns about her from the middle of first year. Concerns have included ethical decision making, boundaries with clients, and poor self-reflection. Academic grades are in the A and B range, though, so the faculty vote to allow her to apply for internship. Letters are vaguely positive, because faculty cannot totally identify her strengths or challenges.
4 CasesStudent B: 2nd Year doctoral student end of 2nd year practicum. Faculty instructor has had some concerns about student, but all reports from on-site supervisor have been glowing. End of April, on-site supervisor asks for a meeting to discuss serious reservations about the student, including violations of confidentiality, seeking a personal, sexual relationship with a client, and manipulating the evaluation process.
5 CasesStudent C: 1st year doctoral student in first practicum notes in journal of fear of African-American clients. Responses to ethics vignette indicate lack of knowledge about ethics code and poor ethical decision-making. Initial consultation with supervisor indicates that student had been misrepresenting client contact.
6 Overview Overview of Competency Movement Competency Benchmarks Competency Assessment Toolkit
8 a “culture of competence” Roberts, Borden, Christiansen & Lopez (2005) a shift within professional psychology toward an emphasis on the acquisition and maintenance of competence as a primary goal
9 Culture of CompetenceRecent years have witnessed a burgeoning interest in a competency-based approach to student learning outcomes in professional psychologyEducational programs are expected to produce competenceProfessional credentialing bodies are expected to certify individuals as competentPolicy makers laud competenceConsumers increasingly demand it
10 Are all equal?for many years the doctoral degree has been linked with the construct of “entry-level to practice,” the latter has been poorly defined at best in terms of the level of competence and nature of competencies expected. Currently, entry-level to practice is defined by documentation of completion of required coursework, including requisite number of hours of supervised training. The correlation between these measures and actual competence as a professional psychologist is unknown, and thus arguably this is a poor proxy for actual evaluation of competence. In addition, external groups such as the U.S. Department of Education, regional accrediting bodies, and regulatory bodies, are discussing incorporating rules and regulations that would measure education and training outcomes in terms of specific competencies that students acquire.
11 Culture of CompetenceIt is time to embrace a culture of the assessment of competencefosters learningevaluates progressassists in determining curriculum and training program effectivenessadvances the fieldprotects the public
12 Goal: Competent Psychologists Choosing A Therapist That's Right for You!
13 A Pedagogical ShiftTraditional models of education and training focus on learning objectivesObjective: aim or goalCurriculum is designed to meet goalsCompetency models focus on outcomesOutcome: result, final state, achievementMeasurement of student learning
14 Culture of CompetenceWe can learn a lot from the efforts of our colleagues in education and the other health professions (medicine, pharmacy, nursing, dentistry)Assessment of Competence Toolbox (American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major (APA, 2007)
15 What is competence in professional psychology. What does it look like What is competence in professional psychology? What does it look like? How is it best assessed?
16 Key Competency Initiatives in Professional Psychology NSCPP Core CompetenciesAPA Ethics code revisedModel Curriculum for Training in Counseling PsychologyBEA Task Force on Assessment of CompetenceADPTC CCTC Practicum CompetenciesCoA revises G&PAPPIC Competencies Conf.1990s
17 Rodolfa, E. R. , Bent, R. J. , Eisman, E. , Nelson, P. D. , Rehm, L **Rodolfa, E. R., Bent, R. J., Eisman, E., Nelson, P. D., Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36,
18 Key Competency Initiatives in Professional Psychology NSCPP Core CompetenciesAPA Ethics code revisedModel Curriculum for Training in Counseling PsychologyBEA Task Force on Assessment of CompetenceADPTC CCTC Practicum CompetenciesCoA revises G&PAPPIC Competencies Conf.Competency Benchmarks Work GroupCompetency Assessment Toolkit1990s
19 Competency Cube General Consensus 12 competency areas BUT– what does each competency look like across a developmental trajectory?
20 Assessment of Competency Benchmarks Work Group Chair: Nadya Fouad, Ph.D.Two-day meeting September 2006Gathered individuals knowledgeable about domains of competence32 member work group
21 GoalsBuild on existing knowledge and advance the shift to a “culture of competence”Promote excellence in professional education and trainingOperationalize a developmental model of competence in professional psychologyTo better inform understanding of “entry level to practice” in light of the APA policy on Education and Training Leading to Licensure
22 CaveatsApplies most directly to those preparing for the practice of health service provision, i.e., those who will seek licensureNot meant to be prescriptive, a tool for programs to implement if they chose and in accordance with their model of education and trainingAssessment of competence must be balanced with the primary mission of the program: education and training
23 Product of the GroupA document that delineates competency benchmarks, or measurable standards of performance, that are developmental and integrated through the sequence of professional education and training
24 How are the Benchmarks Organized? Core Foundational and Functional CompetenciesEssential Component: what are the critical elements of/what knowledge/skills/attitudes that make up this competency?Behavioral Anchor: what would it look like if you saw it (essential component)?
25 Essential ComponentsProfessionalism: Professional values and ethics as evidenced in behavior and comportment that reflects the values and ethics of psychology, integrity, and responsibility.B. DeportmentReadiness for PracticumReadiness for InternshipEssential Component:Understands how to conduct oneself in a professional mannerProfessionally appropriate communication and physical conduct, including attire, across different settings
26 Essential Component Readiness for Entry to Practice: Consistently conducts self in a professional manner across and settings and situations
27 Behavioral Anchors Readiness for Practicum Readiness for Internship ProfessionalismB. DeportmentReadiness for PracticumReadiness for InternshipDemonstrates appropriate personal hygiene and attireDistinguishes between appropriate and inappropriate language and demeanor in professional contextsDemonstrates awareness of the impact behavior has on client, public and professionUtilizes appropriate language and demeanor in professional communicationsDemonstrates appropriate physical conduct, including attire, consistent with context
28 Behavioral Anchors Professionalism Readiness for Entry to Practice B. DeportmentReadiness for Entry to PracticeVerbal and nonverbal communications are appropriate to the professional context including in challenging interactions
29 BenchmarksBenchmarks document underwent period public comment (fall 2007)Group charged by APA Board of Educational Affairs to review comment and made recommendations (spring/summer 2008) (e.g 15 competencies)Final version went to BEA Fall 2008Manuscript in press in TEPP
30 Competency Assessment for Toolkit for Professional Psychology Chair: Nadine Kaslow, Ph.D.Six members in work groupCharge from APA Board of Educational Affairs: Develop a “Toolkit” for professional psychologyPurpose: Promote broader implementation of competence assessment and provide information about application of assessment methods to the assessment of competenceCoordinated effort with Benchmarks Work Group
31 Components of Toolkit Background and Introduction Assessment Method Fact SheetsDescriptionUse specific to core competencies, formative vs. summative, developmental levelImplementationPsychometricsStrengths/ChallengesFuture Directions
32 Assessment Methods in Toolkit 360 evaluationPortfolioOSCEStructured Written & Oral ExamsCase PresentationSimulation/Role PlayCompetence Evaluation Rating FormSelf-AssessmentRatings of live or recorded performanceStandardized Client InterviewClient/Patient Process/Outcome MeasureConsumer Satisfaction SurveyEnd of Rotation Performance Review
34 Table 1Toolkit Assessment Measures, Foundational and Functional Competencies, Formative and Summative Evaluation, andDevelopmental LevelMethodOverall Broad Competencies UsefulEssential Components of Competencies UsefulFormative and Summative Evaluation (notes types of evaluation most useful for most competenciesDevelopmentalLevel (notes levels most useful for)360-Degree EvaluationFoundationalProfessionalismReflective practiceRelationshipsEthical and legal standards and policyInterdisciplinary systemsFunctionalSupervisionTeachingAdministrationAdvocacyIndividual and cultural diversityInterventionFormativeSummativeReadiness for internshipEntry level to practiceAdvanced credentialing
35 Components of Toolkit (cont.) Grid of Assessment Methods and Competencies Best Used forGlossary of TermsReference
36 Toolkit: Next Steps Plan for Dissemination On-line, downloadable resources for education and training programs methods to assess competenceManuscript in press TEPPPresentation at education and training council meetings
37 Challenges?fostering an environment that supports enhancing excellence through assessment at the institutional, programmatic, and individual level; leadership to use results to strengthenTraining in “difficult conversations”
38 Challenges?Recognize and articulate multiple roles trainers engage in and potential impact on evaluationKnowledge of a range of assessment tools, access to resources “tool kits”
39 CasesStudent A: Applying for internship. Faculty in the program have had concerns about her from the middle of first year. Concerns have included ethical decision making, boundaries with clients, and poor self-reflection. Academic grades are in the A and B range, though, so the faculty vote to allow her to apply for internship. Letters are vaguely positive, because faculty cannot totally identify her strengths or challenges.
40 CasesStudent B: 2nd Year doctoral student end of 2nd year practicum. Faculty instructor has had some concerns about student, but all reports from on-site supervisor have been glowing. End of April, on-site supervisor asks for a meeting to discuss serious reservations about the student, including violations of confidentiality, seeking a personal, sexual relationship with a client, and manipulating the evaluation process.
41 CasesStudent C: 1st year doctoral student in first practicum notes in journal of fear of African-American clients. Responses to ethics vignette indicate lack of knowledge about ethics code and poor ethical decision-making. Initial consultation with supervisor indicates that student had been misrepresenting client contact.