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Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter 1 The Fundamentals of Managerial Economics

2 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Overview I. Introduction II. The Economics of Effective Management n Identify Goals and Constraints n Recognize the Role of Profits n Understand Incentives n Understand Markets n Recognize the Time Value of Money n Use Marginal Analysis

3 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Managerial Economics Manager n A person who directs resources to achieve a stated goal. Economics n The science of making decisions in the presence of scare resources. Managerial Economics n The study of how to direct scarce resources in the way that most efficiently achieves a managerial goal.

4 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Economic vs. Accounting Profits Accounting Profits n Measured sales minus measured costs of producing goods or services n Reported on the firms income statement Economic Profits n Total revenue minus total opportunity cost n What do we really mean by profits? --that a profitable business is one that should stay in business.

5 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Opportunity Cost Accounting Cost n The explicit costs of the resources needed to produce produce goods or services n Reported on the firms income statement Opportunity Cost n The cost of the explicit and implicit resources that are foregone when a decision is made Economic Profits n Total revenue minus total opportunity cost Should a firm ever dissolve even though it is earning positive profits?

6 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Market Interactions Consumer-Producer Rivalry n Consumers attempt to locate low prices, while producers attempt to charge high prices Consumer-Consumer Rivalry n Scarcity of goods reduces the negotiating power of consumers as they compete for the right to those goods Producer-Producer Rivalry n Scarcity of consumers causes producers to compete with one another for the right to service customers The Ideal Role of Government n To enforce the rules of the game, and to make rules that encourage good activities.

7 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 The Time Value of Money Present value (PV) of an amount (FV) to be received at the end of n periods when the per-period interest rate is i: Examples? -State lotteries, damages in lawsuits, interest- free loans to corrupt politicians.

8 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Present Value of a Series Present value of a stream of future amounts (FV t ) received at the end of each period for n periods: (formula here)

9 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Net Present Value Suppose a manager can purchase a stream of future receipts (FV t ) by spending C 0 dollars today. The NPV of such a decision is NPV < 0: Reject NPV > 0: Accept

10 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Firm Valuation The value of a firm equals the present value of all its future profits PV = t / (1 + i) t If profits grow at a constant rate, g < i, then : PV = i) / ( i - g), current profit level.

11 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Control Variables n Output n Price n Product Quality n Advertising n R&D Basic Managerial Question: How much of each control variable should be used to maximize profit? Marginal (Incremental) Analysis

12 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Marginal Benefit (MB) Change in total benefits arising from a change in the control variable, Q: MB = B / Q Slope (calculus derivative) of the total benefit curve

13 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Marginal Cost (MC) Change in total costs arising from a change in the control variable, Q: MC = C / Q Slope (calculus derivative) of the total cost curve

14 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Marginal Principle To maximize net benefits, the managerial control variable should be increased up to the point where MB = MC MB > MC means the last unit of the control variable increased benefits more than it increased costs MB < MC means the last unit of the control variable increased costs more than it increased benefits

15 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 The Geometry of Optimization Q Benefits & Costs Benefits Costs Q* B C Slope = MC Slope =MB

16 Michael R. Baye, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 3e. ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Summary Make sure you include all costs and benefits when making decisions (opportunity cost) When decisions span time, make sure you are comparing apples to apples (PV analysis) Optimal economic decisions are made at the margin (marginal analysis)


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