Presentation on theme: "1 DAIR: Dense Array of Inexpensive Radios Managing Enterprise Wireless Networks Using Desktop Infrastructure Victor Bahl, Jitendra Padhye, Lenin Ravnindranath,"— Presentation transcript:
1 DAIR: Dense Array of Inexpensive Radios Managing Enterprise Wireless Networks Using Desktop Infrastructure Victor Bahl, Jitendra Padhye, Lenin Ravnindranath, Manpreet Singh, Alec Wolman, Brian Zill Microsoft Research Cornell University
2 Observations Outfitting a desktop PC with 802.11 wireless is becoming very inexpensive –Wireless USB dongles are cheap –PC motherboards are starting to appear with 802.11 radios built-in Desktop PCs with good wired connectivity are ubiquitous in enterprises $6.99!
3 Key Insight Combine to provide a dense deployment of wireless sensors We can use this platform to realize the full potential of wireless networks –Enterprise wireless management tools –Enable new services where wireless is a key component
4 The DAIR Platform Wireless management tools –Improve security –Reduce IT ops costs –Increase quality of service New applications and services –Location services –Seamless roaming –Alternative data distribution channel
5 Outline Motivation DAIR architecture Management apps (& Rogue networks) Related work
6 Enterprise WLAN Management Corporations spend a lot on WLAN infrastructure –Worldwide enterprise WLAN business expected to grow from $1.1 billion this year to $3.5 billion in 2009 –MS IT dept. – 72% of costs are people Security and reliability are major concerns –Wireless networks are becoming a target for hackers –Reliability: MS IT receives ~500 WLAN helpdesk requests per month No easy way to measure cost of reliability problems
7 Advantages of the DAIR Approach –High density Wireless propagation is highly variable in enterprise environments (many obstructions) Lots of channels to cover: 11 for 802.11b/g, 13 for 802.11a Improves fidelity of many management tasks Enables accurate location (useful as a diagnosis tool) –Stationary sensing Provides predictable coverage Also helps enable location services Allows meaningful historical analysis –Desktop resources Spare CPU, disk, and memory Good connectivity to wired network Wall power
8 Outline Motivation DAIR architecture Management apps (& Rogue networks) Related work
11 Outline Motivation DAIR architecture Management apps (& Rogue networks) Related work
12 Wireless Management Apps Performance and Reliability Performance monitoring –Site planning: AP placement, frequency selection –AP Load balancing –Isolating performance problems Helping disconnected clients –RF Holes –Misconfiguration, certificates, etc… Reliability –Recovery from malfunctioning APs –Recovery from poor association policies
13 Wireless Management: Security Apps Detecting DoS attacks: –Spoofing Disassociation –Large NAV values –Jamming Detecting Rogue Wireless Networks
14 Rogue Wireless Networks Detecting rogue APs and rogue ad-hoc networks An uninformed or careless employee who doesnt understand (or chooses not to think about) the security implications –An employee brings in an AP from home, and attaches it to the corporate network, creating a rogue AP –It is trivial to configure a desktop PC with a wireless interface to create a rogue ad-hoc network
15 Risks Attaching unauthorized AP to a corporate network –May allow unauthorized wireless clients to gain access A wireless client unknowingly connects to unauthorized AP on unauthorized network –May expose corporate information on that network Once rogue network is installed, physical proximity is no longer needed (esp. with directional antennas)…
16 A Simple Solution? Build a database of known: – SSIDs (network names) – BSSIDs (access point MAC addresses) Use DAIR infrastructure to scan – Whenever an unknown entity appears (either SSID or BSSID), raise an alarm This is the level at which most previous work solves this problem
17 False Alarms In many enterprise environments, one can hear other legitimate APs –E.g. shared office buildings Is the unknown wireless network connected to your corporate wired network?
18 Testing for Wired Connectivity Association test –Associate with suspect AP, contact wired node Mac address tests: –First-hop router test Wireless DEST = known router on wired network –ARP test Wireless DEST = known entity on local subnet DHCP signature test –For wireless routers: Identify device type through DHCP options Packet correlation test –Use timing and packet lengths to see traffic on both wired/wireless Replay test
19 First-Hop Router Test Land MonitorAir Monitor Subnet RouterDatabase Land Monitor discovers MAC addresses of all subnet routers, submits results to the database Client AirMonitor overhears a client communicating with an unknown access point Access Point ?
20 First-Hop Router Test Unencrypted HeaderEncrypted Payload ReceiverTransmitterDestination Access PointClientSubnet Router 802.11 Frame (with encryption): MAC Addresses:
21 Outline Motivation DAIR architecture Management apps (& Rogue networks) Related work
22 Current Approaches & Related Research Many commercial offerings in this space Leverage existing access points (APs) –AirWave, ManageEngine, … –APs primary goal is to provide service to clients, limited time listening on other channels Specialized sensors –Aruba (MS IT choice), AirDefense, AirTight … –Expensive limited density [Adya et al. Mobicom 04] – use assistance of mobile clients –Difficult to provide predictable coverage –Less proactive due to energy constraints Other wireless monitoring
23 Wrapping Up… –Status Built much of the plumbing: AirMonitors, Inferencing Service, Management Console (GUI) Built set of wireless security apps, ongoing evaluation Deployed ~22 AirMonitors on one floor of our building –Next 6 months: Performance & reliability apps Provide location services Larger scale deployment –Longer Term: going beyond management tools Seamless roaming Self-configuring complete replacement for existing wireless infrastructure
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