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COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. INFORM: a dynamic INterest FORwarding Mechanism for Information Centric Networking Raffaele Chiocchetti, Diego Perino, Giovanna Carofiglio - Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent Dario Rossi, Giuseppe Rossini – Telecom ParisTech ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Information-Centric Networking August 12th 2013, Hong Kong
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 Forwarding in Named Data Networking Request forwarding is performed hop-by-hop by every node Data packets follow the reverse request path close loop between nodes and content item copies How to exploit off-path temporary item copies? /BellLabs/ICN/talks/reality.avi A B Interest H /BellLabs/ICN/talks/reality.avi/chunk0 /BellLabs/ICN/talks/reality.avi
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 Two possible approaches: Control plane protocols To distribute information about mid-long term item copies L. Wang, A. K. M. Hoque, Cheng Yi, A. Alyyan, and B. Zhang. OSPFN: An OSPF based routing protocol for named data networking. Technical report, March 2012. Y. Wang and K. Lee. Advertising cached contents in the control plane: Necessity and feasibility. In IEEE INFOCOM, NOMEN Workshop, 2012. Data plane forwarding schemes To exploit short term content item availabilities R. Chiocchetti, D. Rossi, G. Rossini, G. Carofiglio, and D. Perino. Exploit the known or explore the unknown?: hamlet-like doubts in icn. In ACM SIGCOMM ICN, 2012. C. Yi, A. Afanasyev, I. Moiseenko, L. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zhang. A case for stateful forwarding plane. Computer Communications, 2013.
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 INFORM: a dynamic Interest FORwarding for Information Centric Networking
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 INFORM design goals i.To discover paths to temporary copies of a content item ii.To forward requests for such content items towards the « best » interface iii.To guarantee data delivery iv.To limit the network overhead Other relevant dynamic forwarding design goals not addressed by INFORM: Congestion control over multiple paths Implicit Cache coordination ……
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6 From a reinforcement learning framework … INFORM is inspired by Q-routing algorithm [a] implementing a distributed version of reinforcement learning every node i stores delivery time estimations for all possible destination nodes d through all possible neighbors v (i.e. Q values): Forwarding steps: 1.Select the interface to the neighboring node v, towards a given destination node d with the smallest Q value, Q i (d,v) 2.node v responds with its the best Q value (i.e. best delivery time estimation) 3.Update Q i (d, v) = (1 -η).Q i (d,v)+ η.(min k_in_neighbours(v) Q v (f,k)+rtt i,v ) [a] J. A. Boyan and M. L. Littman. Packet routing in dynamically changing networks: A reinforcement learning approach. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 6, pages 671–678. Morgan Kaufmann, 1994.
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 7 …to INFORM! INFORM is independently run by each node in the network, and works at content item granularity Q i (f, v) stored at every node i for every content f Exploitation of updated statistics Exploration of available interfaces
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8 Performance evaluation
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9 Simulation settings Simulations run using the ccnSim simulator [a] Network topology is modeled as an Erdos-Renyi graph G(n, ρ) N=20 nodes, 8 border routers where clients are connected to 1 content server 10^5 content items Zipf popularity distribution with α=1 Default parameters Connectivity ρ=0.3 Cache size c=15% [a] http://www.telecom-paristech.fr/~drossi/ccnSim
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10 Parameters tuning
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11 Evaluation – Average packet download time The download time decreases as the connectivity increases INFORM provide between 18-33% improvement w.r.t. min-delay path forwarding and 10-33% w.r.t. NDN scheme
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12 Evaluation – Average packet download time (cont'd) Delivery time sharply decreases as the cache size until additional storage capacity does not provide any benefits INFORM provide between 5-26% improvement w.r.t. min-delay path forwarding and 22-25% w.r.t. NDN scheme
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13 Evaluation – Data overhead Data load decreases as connectivity increases for min-delay forwarding Data load first increases then decreases for dynamic forwarding schemes
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14 Evaluation – Data overhead (cont'd) Similar trend as for the connectivity case INFORM reduces network overhead w.r.t. NDN forwarding scheme
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15 Conclusions INFORM designed to discover and exploit temporary available content replicas and adapt request forwarding accordingly Performance evaluation shows INFORM outperform state of the art algorithms reducing the overhead w.r.t. other dynamic schemes On-going and future work Analytical modeling of INFORM System-level design to support INFORM in high speed devices Extensive simulations and experimental evaluation with our prototype
COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16
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