Presentation on theme: "THE IMPACT ON UNIFORMED SERVICES"— Presentation transcript:
1THE IMPACT ON UNIFORMED SERVICES HIV/AIDS AND SECURITYTHE IMPACT ON UNIFORMED SERVICES
2International Concern In 2000 the Security Council adopted resolution 1308 expressing concern over the potentially damaging impact of HIV/AIDS on the health of international and national peacekeeping, military and police personnel, for the first time identifying a health issue as a matter of security.The UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted by Member States in the General Assembly Special Session (June 2001), includes national uniformed services as a key area to be addressed in the global action against the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.In recognition of the devastating interplay between the epidemic and security the UN Security Council to adopt Resolution 1308 in June 2000, marking a historical move for the UN where a health issue for the first time was discussed in terms of its implications on the maintenance of international peace and security.One year later, governments world-wide recognized the magnitude and alarming rate in which the AIDS epidemic is growing, notably in conflict and disaster affected regions. Again in an unprecedented move, Member States unanimously adopted the UN Declaration of Commitments on HIV/AIDS during the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in June 2001, in which they declared that HIV/AIDS “constitutes a global emergency … which undermines social and economic development throughout the world and affects all levels of society—national, community, family and individual.”This has since become a corporate priority for UNAIDS.
3HIV/AIDS THREATENS INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL SECURITY High prevalence rates among uniformed services (police, border guards, military and peacekeepers) can undermine national security and international peacekeeping missionsUNAIDS states that in peacetimes HIV infection rates among armed forces are generally 2 to5 five times higher than civilian populations and up to 50 time greater in times of conflictHoweverKenyan armed forces stated recently that they were losing at least six to ten soldiers per week to HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS increases poverty and vulnerability, widens the gap between rich and poor and undermines the credibility and operational effectiveness of States. These dynamics, singularly or in combination, exacerbate and, in some settings provoke social volatility and political polarization. Such instability and insecurity can lead to conflict, which in turn is likely to result in a loss of livelihoods, disintegration of families, the collapse of health services etc … ideal conditions for the spread of HIV and other infectious diseases. In this way, AIDS may fuel a self perpetuating cycle of conflict and disease.However the men and women in uniformed services who are at the forefront of maintaining stability both within states and between them are, today the same men and women who are at the frontline of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, vulnerable to both contracting HIV/AIDS and serving as agents of its transmission. This is a humanitarian issue in itself, with enormous implications for both individuals within the uniformed services and the communities with which they interact.While actual data on prevalence rates among the uniformed services are scarce, some reports suggest alarming prevalence rates.On report published by PANOS and UNAIDS suggest that 25-50% of men and women in the Malawi Defense Force may die of AIDS by the year 2005 will local news media in South Africa put report a rate of infection in the South African Defence force from between 50-70%. As recently as last week THE US ambassador to Botswana Joseph Huggins said that many African countries face readiness problems in their militaries because of the high rates of HIV/AIDS among soldiers.
4UNAIDS RESPONSE Global Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Security International SecurityNational SecurityHumanitarian ResponsePeacekeeping operationsUniformed Servicesboth civil and military focusing on:Young recruitsFuture peacekeepersDemobilizing personnelVulnerable populationsin crisis settingsYoung recruits are particularly important in view of their potential role as future leaders and decision makers or as peacekeepers in their countries and else where. The behaviour of young recruits and the services and information they receive determine the quality of life for millions of people. This is particularly the case among youths in the uniformed services who have to contend with loneliness and other challenges away from families and familiar cultural norms.Among those at greater risk of infection are those mobilised or posted abroad. Personnel sent on peacekeeping missions, for example, often have more financial resources than the local people, giving them means to purchase sex. As a result, sex industries grow around military bases in response to demand. But peacekeepers also offer a unique opportunity for awareness and advocacy wherever they are mobilised.Demobilised personnel, particularly former combatants, are also an important group at risk. They often dispose of ready sums of money for reintegration into civil community. Together with other psychological effects that may result from long absences from home, they are easily exposed to sexual infections that often result from several encounters including coercion and/or commercial sex.It is clear therefore, that whether as belligerents, peacekeepers or police officers, uniformed services are at the centre of the AIDS epidemic, especially young recruits.Humanitarian Workers
5Uniformed Services Programming Guide This guide is designed to provide an overview of HIV/AIDS/STI programming options for uniformed services programme planners.This guide is designed to provide an overview of HIV/AIDS/STI programming options for uniformed services programme planners.Through its extensive work with uniformed services world wide UNAIDS has noticed that while many national outfits recognise the need to address HIV/AIDS many do not have the know how to do so in a sustainable manner. In this guide, UNAIDS purports that a systematic approach to the epidemic is more effective than an ad hoc approach with a few uncoordinated activities. A programme allows for a framework within which services and activities can be established. It ensures that the response is balanced, available funds are used to good effect and the elements are coordinated and work effectively together.The guide presents a vision in which all efforts are focused on inspiring positive behaviour change. Experience tells us that information alone does not usually result in behaviour change. Particular emphasis is given in this guide to developing interventions for the largest at-risk population: uniformed service personnel between the ages of 18 and 25. This guide is specifically focused on the programming needs of the uniformed services and includes topics such as: establishing and managing a HIV/AIDS/STI programme, substance abuse, gender issues, collaboration with the civilian sector and implementing behavioural change communication strategies.
6Peer Education Kit for Uniformed Services Peer education is an effective method for reducing risky behaviours and in encouraging uniformed services personnel to become advocates in the fight against HIV/AIDS.Behavior change, based on acquiring knowledge and learning skills, along with individual risk assessment, is an effective method for reducing risky behaviours and in encouraging uniformed services personnel to become advocates in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The kit is divided into 2 sections:Section 1: Module 1 - 5: Peer EducationThese modules provide an overview of what is peer education, how to train peer educators and carry out effective training sessions. It is designed to inform planners and policy-makers who may eventually develop and manage a peer leadership programme. It is also targeted at trainers of peer educators to enable them to ensure that members of the uniformed services become effective and informed HIV/AIDS peer educators. This section also included a module on monitoring and evaluation and can be used by the trainer/peer educator to determine the impact of their work.Section 2: Module 6-14: Group Participatory ExercisesThis section is the largest part of the guide. It includes many exercises, including step by step instructions, to be used by the peer leaders. There are exercises designed to desensitise sexual issues and assess risk and enhance relationship communications. Exercises on sexual violence, alcohol and substance abuse and stigma and discrimination are also included. This section can be used by both trainers of peer educators and the peer educators themselves.
7HIV/AIDS awareness card… The card provides basic messages on HIV/AIDS, instructions on condom use, a condom and advice for emergency situations.Other components of the UNAIDS Global Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Security include a series of country case studies delineating innovative approaches to addressing HIV/AIDS among members of the uniformed services. Here today we present the case study on fighting HIV/AIDS amongst armed forces and UN peacekeepers in Eritrea.On the Frontline is a review of polices and programmes to address HIV/AIDS among peacekeepers an uniformed services. It provides an overview of the actions taken by the both the international community and individual countries to address HIV/AIDS among the uniformed services. This report shows that while it is evident that, great strides have been made in addressing HIV/AIDS among the uniformed services, a lot more work needs to be done to successfully mitigate the impact of the epidemic on national and international security.
8UNAIDS/SHR: Activities planned or ongoing 2002/2003 BelarusBIHEstoniaKazakhstan LatviaLithuaniaMoldova Russia UkraineUzbekistanAngolaBurundiCentral African RepublicCongoDRCEritreaKenyaNamibiaRwandaSwazilandTanzaniaUgandaUNAIDS HIV/AIDS Policy Advisor in DPKOCambodiaIndiaIndonesiaLaosMyanmarThailandVietnamPhilippinesArgentinaChileCosta RicaGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaUruguayPEACEKEEPING MISSIONS INSierra LeoneEritrea/EthiopiaCongoEast Timor
9UNAIDS Website: Interactive map The UNAIDS/SHR web-site provides periodically updated country data on HIV/AIDS situation and activities in the uniformed servicesGlobal view…Regional view…In an effort to provide a forum to facilitate the sharing of information on HIV/AIDS policies and programmes within national uniformed services and peacekeeping missions worldwide, UNAIDS has developed an internet based interactive map which provides a dynamic and comprehensive data base of information, articles and documents which pertain to addressing HIV/AIDS among uniformed services in countries around the world.This interactive map will not only provide information on UNAIDS activities but also on the interventions and programmes undertaken by our partners in this field. It is hoped that this forum will facilitate a global and comprehensive response to addressing HIV/AIDS among men and women in uniform. Not only can it serve as in important resource tool for the media and researchers interested in the topic, the information on this map will be constantly updated to allow organisations working with uniformed services to learn about approaches undertaken in other parts of the world.We invite you to take a look at this website after this briefing.
10PARTNERSHIPS UN DEPARTMENT OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS – DPKO UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN- UNIFEMUNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES - UNHCRNATIONAL INSTITUTIONSThe success of the Global Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Security being launched officially here today depends largely on the strong partnerships already developed by UNAIDS.Pursuant to the Security Council Resolution 1308 UNAIDS and DPKO signed a Cooperation Framework in Since the signing UNAIDS and DPKO have collaborated on placing HIV/AIDS policy advisors in the main peacekeeping missions and in the DPKO HQ in New York. UNAIDS continues to provide technical guidance on the development of HIV/AIDS policies and programmes being established at mission level to address issues such as awareness raising, VCCT and care and support.UNAIDS and UNIFEM continue to work together on addressing the gender dimension to HIV/AIDS in post conflict zones. Currently a HIV/AIDS gender advisor is in place in Sierra Leone and plans are underway to place similar advisors in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola.One central aim of this UNAIDS Global Initiative on Security is the strengthening of national institutions. To ensure a sustainable approach to addressing HIV/AIDS among uniformed services, UNAIDS endeavors to work closely with national bodies, building its capacity to maintain and develop the activities in place for the men and women in the uniformed services.