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1 GATS, Mode 4 and the Pattern of Commitments Antonia Carzaniga Trade in Services Division, WTO Secretariat 11-12 April 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "1 GATS, Mode 4 and the Pattern of Commitments Antonia Carzaniga Trade in Services Division, WTO Secretariat 11-12 April 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 GATS, Mode 4 and the Pattern of Commitments Antonia Carzaniga Trade in Services Division, WTO Secretariat April 2002

2 2 Mode 4 - Article I definition The supply of a service by: a service supplier of one Member, through presence of natural persons of a Member in the territory of any other Member.

3 3 What natural persons? Natural persons who are service suppliers of a Member –self-employed Natural persons of a Member who are employed by a service supplier of a Member –at home, and sent abroad to supply a service –in the host country

4 4 The Annex The GATS does NOT cover: –natural persons seeking access to the employment market –measures regarding citizenship, residence or employment on a permanent basis Governments are free to regulate entry and temporary stay, provided these measures do not nullify or impair the commitments

5 5 Relative importance of mode 4 Estimates: –Mode 1 - > 25% –Mode 2 - ~ 15% –Mode 3 - < 60% –Mode 4 - ~ 1% The situation may differ across sectors

6 6 Mode 4 trade flows (BOP compensation of employees, million US$, 1999) Top exporters 1. France Philippines Belgium-Lux Germany United States Italy United Kingdom Thailand Switzerland Austria1019 Top importers 1. United States Switzerland Germany Belgium-Lux Israel Italy United Kingdom France Netherlands Denmark694

7 7 Extended Negotiations A number of developing countries were dissatisfied with level of mode 4 commitments Negotiations were extended until June 1995 But no major breakthrough - improvements by Australia, Canada, EC, India, Norway, Switzerland (Third Protocol)

8 8 Mode 4 Commitments Very few fully liberal commitments Positive listing of measures: Unbound except... Governed by horizontal commitments High-level of training and expertise, often as intra-corporate transferees Specified duration of stay: 3 months to 5 years

9 9 Structure of Commitments (horizontal commitments, 2002)

10 10 Main limitations scheduled Categories Pre-employment ENTs Quotas Subsidies Residency Training Real estate


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