2UNITED NATIONSINDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONUNIDO SPS-RELATED CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT TOOLSA BRIEF OVERVIEW STDF SPS Capacity Evaluation Workshop31st March 2008Gerardo PatacconiChiefProductivity, Quality and Enterprises Upgrading UnitTrade Capacity-Building Branch
3Demands and Channels of Communications UNITED NATIONSINDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONIntroductionDemands and Channels of CommunicationsUNIDO Capacity Evaluation and Needs Assessments ToolsContext-Specific Needs AssessmentTrade Related Challenges Surveys at the Enterprise LevelKey Export Sectors Supply-Side constraints – UNIDO Competitiveness Analysis ToolAnalysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsAnalysis of developing countries product refusals/notifications
7Introduction Agro-business value chains/enterprises UNIDO uses a holistic approach to make SPS and TBT compliance measures effective in developing countries.The SPS related technical assistance activities involve support to:Agro-business value chains/enterprisesGovernments and trade, business and industrial associations,Standards and Conformity Assessment infrastructure.With respect to the standards and conformity assessment infrastructure, UNIDO has contributed setting up and upgrading it in several developing countries in the last 40 years.
8Introduction To respond to: growing demand for greater coherence and to the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness,UNIDO is increasingly cooperating with and associating other bilateral and multilateral organizations in the needs assessment and project development and implementation process such as the WTO, ITC, UNCTAD, STDF, World Bank etc.
9IntroductionWe have established strategic partnerships with international standards, measurement, accreditation and research organizations, including:International Organization for Standardization (ISO),International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC),International Accreditation Forum (IAF),International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) andInternational Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML)World Associations of Industrial and Technological Research Associations WAITRO……In addition, UNIDO is a founding member of the Joint Committee on Coordination of Assistance to Developing Countries in Metrology, Accreditation and Standardization (JCDCMAS).
10IntroductionAs one of the top providers of TRTA, with emphasis on TBT and SPS matters, UNIDO implemented national and regional projects amounting to about US$ 181 million over the period.In order to respond to the Doha Development AgendaUNIDO has been refining its needs assessment and project development, implementation and monitoring tools to respond more effectively to a growing demand for technical assistance by developing countries.
11UNIDO 3Cs approach.These tools are based on accumulated expertise and knowledge of challenges and opportunities of developing countries in the process of integration in the MTS with regards to their:Supply-capacity;Ability to comply with growing market demands in terms of standards and conformity assessment;Capacity to access national, regional and international markets
12UNIDO 3Cs approach. COMPETITIVITY of productive capacities “Products must conform to requirements of clients and markets” CONFORMITY with standards“Rules for trade must be equitable and customs procedures harmonized” CONNECTIVITY to markets“Countries must have marketable products to trade” COMPETITIVITY of productive capacities
13UNIDO TCB - Key Focus Areas Supply side development (UNIDO)Industrial policy and supportive institutional structureInvestment and technology transferSME development and access to financeCluster and export consortia developmentProductivity and qualityIndustrial Upgrading, sectoral technology supportCleaner Production, energy efficiencyStandards & Conformity Assessment/Compliance (UNIDO)Development and harmonization of standardsDevelopment of testing services , PT SchemesCertification (products and enterprise systems)Metrology/Calibration chainAccreditation schemesIntegration in to the MTS (WTO, UNCTAD, ITC, WB…)Market access and linkages with buyers/marketsWTO rules, negotiationsTrade facilitation (customs, documentation)Infrastructure (transport, ports)CompeteConformConnect
15Demand and Channels of Communication With regards to the demand for advisory services and technical assistance, UNIDO projects are developed through communications received via different channels, among them:Government requests for TBT/SPS-related TRTA to cover legal framework, institutional and human capacity and physical infrastructures;Requests by business associations such as national/sectoral industrial associations, chambers of commerce and industry, trade groups, clusters or local institutions such as standards bodies, certifiers, inspection bodies, laboratories;Identification of new standards or conformity assessment procedures which might have a significant impact on developing countries’ export or import;Request for action to overcome problems when products are banned to export due non compliance; orAssistance required in the process of bilateral, regional or multilateral trade negotiations.
16Demand and Channels of Communication Donors are associated with the project development process from the initial phase. UNIDO allocates seed money either:to carry out the initial needs assessmentOrto contribute to trouble-shooting actions tackling urgent problems and requests.The UNIDO methodology for needs assessment involves both desk research and field work and it is supported by the UNIDO field representation system covering over 70 countries through UNIDO national/regional offices/desks and technical networks which include:National Cleaner Production Centres,Technology Centres,Investment and Partnership Promotion Offices and UnitsSub-Contracting Exchanges.
18EXAMPLE EGYPT: Traceability of agro-industrial products for the European Market Project funded utilising a “Debt-for-Development Swap” agreement (2001) between Italy and Egypt (€ 6.4 million) and linked to an Italian Initiative for trade facilitation called the “green corridor”Egyptian producers assisted and traceability manual/scheme implemented through over 100 pack-houses and linkages with Italian/European Importers establishedNational Database on traceability/pesticidespost-harvest Investment needs assessedT. A. component implemented by UNIDO (~US$2.6 million)Financial Assistance Facility (~US$4.6 million) used for co-financing the acquisition of know-how and technology for implementing the Traceability System compatible with EU Directive.
20ScopeNational pesticide database for EgyptEXAMPLE EGYPT: Traceability of agro-industrial products for the European MarketAccessible for everyoneEasy to useProviding up do date information on the approved pesticides useDecreasing the misuse of unapproved productsIncreasing transparencySaving time and risk for food exporting companiesServing as a guide for CPP selection by farmersImproving compliance with GlobalGAP16/09/2006 Inas Nureldin
21PRIORITIES: FOOD INDUSTRY EXAMPLE EPAs - Economic Partnership Agreements: QUALITY AND UPGRADING PROGRAMMESREGIONRequestReceivedUpgrading & Modernization ProgrammeQuality ProgrammeDraft Terms of ReferencepreparedCARIBBEANXCENTRAL AFRICAEAST & SOUTHERN AFRICASOUTHERN AFRICA(SADC Group)WEST AFRICAPACIFICThe establishment of the WTO came with two agreements, that have standards and conformity implications.The TBT and SPS agreements. Established in January 1995WTO members have signed it.The agreement recognises every country has a right to use standards and conformity measures, to safeguard citizens, safety, health, product quality etc. and also the environment and plant and animal welfare.The SPS/TBT agreement in effect legalised the use of standards/conformity procedures in Trade.When the agreement was drafted, everyone knew developing countries do not have the capacity to comply with this.The agreements clearly acknowledges this deficiency and has clauses to assist developing countries .However, very little such technical assistance has been delivered.PRIORITIES: FOOD INDUSTRY
22(testing cost reductions between 31% and 79% depending on the test): EXAMPLE : INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT PROGRAMME FOR SRI LANKABudget: US$ 3.1 million Donor: NorwayLaboratories accredited to ISO/IEC in Sri Lanka throughMicrobiology (2); Chemical Testing (2); Garment/Textile (1); Metrology (1); Rubber testing (1); Food Testing (1)International buyers are now accepting the Sri Lanka laboratory certificate(testing cost reductions between 31% and 79% depending on the test):
23EXAMPLE UNIDO/EU - UEMOA Programme Budget: € 14.0 million Donor: EUProductive Capacities and Quality PromotionFood safety, productivity and quality promotion68 pilot enterprises prepared for ISO 9001National and regional Quality awardsTraining of journalists in consumerism and product qualityStandards and Conformity AssessmentHarmonization of standards for export productsHarmonization of testing procedures, reg. database on labsUpgrading of 50 laboratories, 24 for international accreditationRegional accreditation schemeTraining of 16 Lab. auditorsTraining of 40 ISO 9001 auditorsUEMOA Phase 2: (€ 6.0 million)UEMOA Upgrading: (€ 11.0 million)In cooperation with:Microbiology Laboratory in Côte d’Ivoire recently received COFRAC ISO/IEC accreditation for food testing (Sept. 2007)EXPORT BAN LIFTED
24EXAMPLE Enhancing the Capacities of the Tanzanian Quality Infrastructure and TBT/SPS Compliance Systems for TradeBudget: US$ 2.0 million Donor: Switzerland (SECO)focus on coffee and cashew nuts quality chainsEducation tool on food safety for secondary-school students
25EXAMPLE Pakistan TRTA PROGRAMME Budget: € 5.0 million Donor: EUBarrier to Trade SurveyStudy on SPS Compliance for ExportsStandards (PSQCA)Standards developmentCertification Body (Systems)Consumer affairsProduct certificationMetrology (NPSL)Lab upgrading, international accreditationProduct Testing (MFD, PCSIR, etc): Fisheries, Food, Leather, TextileLab upgrading, PT participationInternational accreditationAccreditation (PNAC)Organizational strengthening, international recognitionNational accreditation schemeTraining of auditorsSetting-up of PT schemesQuality/Hygiene (Private sector, FPCCI, etc.) Fish/foodManagement systemsGood practicesCompliance with market requirementsPilot certifications HACCP, ISO 9001, 14001, SA 8000)Pilot traceability systemsBoat hygieneIcingLanding SitesInspectionAuction HallProcessorsTraceability
26EXAMPLE Pakistan TRTA PROGRAMME World Bank - UNIDO Report on Pakistan's agro-based exports and Sanitary and Phytosanitary compliance
27EXAMPLE Trade Capacity Building for Ghana Budget: US$ 2.7 million Donor: Switzerland (SECO)- Support to the Ghana Bureau of Standards (GSB)- restructuring into modern service-oriented structure- standard-setting- promotion/training of new standards- establishment of a national traceability schemeand for the institutionalization of consumer protection- Establishment of a national traceability system for horticultural productsDevelop systems certification capability of GSBUpgrading testing and calibration laboratoriesUpgrading the Plant Protection and Regulatory Services Directorate(PPRSD) as an EU Competent Authority in the field of horticulture
28Quality Infrastructure: EXAMPLE Mozambique: Support for Enhancement of Capacity for Food Safety and and Quality Assurance System for TradeBudget: US$ 2.2 million Donor: SwitzerlandFood Safety:Establish a food safety system that is compliant with international requirements with special focus on the public institutionsQuality Infrastructure:Develop and implement the required technical infrastructure (standard setting, laboratories infrastructure/product certification, accreditation of laboratories, metrology/calibration of testing laboratory equipment) suitable for product compliance with market entry requirements forCashew nutsHoneyEdible oil seedsFruits and vegetablesFish products
29EXAMPLE MEKONG (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam) Trade Capacity Building in the Mekong Delta Countries of Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam, through Strengthening Institutional and National Capacities Related to Standards, Metrology, Testing and Quality (SMTQ)Budget: US$ 2.5 million Donor: NorwayCambodiaFormulation and publication of Cambodian national standards, for domestic and export productsDevelopment of ISO 9001, ISO and HACCP certification services, reinforcing the Dept. of Industrial Standards of Cambodia (ISC)Accredited Product Certification scheme established at the Dept. of Industrial Standards of Cambodia (ISC)TBT enquiry point, standards library and documentation centre with facilities for acquisition and dissemination ofinformation established at the Dept. of Industrial Standards of Cambodia (ISC)Lao PDRFormulation and publication of Lao national standards, for domestic and export productsDevelopment of ISO 9001 and ISO certification services, reinforcing the Division of Standards and QualityDevelopment of HACCP certification services, reinforcing the Dept. of Food and Drugs (DFD), Ministry of Healthinformation established and staff trained at the Division of Standards & Quality (DSQ)VietnamProduct certification scheme for CE marking and other IEEE requirementsCompliance capacity for EU traceability, EUREPGAP, GVP and GTPUpgraded Vietnam Metrology CenterNational proficiency scheme launched and BOA staff trained in specialised areas
31Organizational and regulatory framework for fish industry improved, service capacity for fish inspection strengthenedTesting laboratories locally available and internationally recognizedIn-plant group training carried out in 17 factories for 950 staff and critical mass of expertise provided to processing plants in GHP, HACCP, ISO 9000Quality control upgraded at all levelsEU ban (1999( lifted by the end of 2000 and new market in US opened
33UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 1 UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 1. Context specific needs assessment
34UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 1 UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 1. Context specific needs assessmentBased on the request for the formulation of a project, UNIDO undertakes context-specific desk research as well as a preparatory/needs assessment missions to clearly identify the challenges at the level of:government policy and regulatory framework (TBT/SPS, bilateral);institutional capacity specifically in the quality-related institutions dealing with Standards, Metrology, Testing and Quality (SMTQ);sector(s)/value chains; andd) enterprises.The desk research involves the review of available diagnostic studies:UNIDO competitiveness/technology studies (global/regional/country/macro/sectoral/value-chain/product)DTIS (Diagnostic Trade Integration Study)PRSPs (Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers)Export Development Strategies, as well as any specific needs evaluations and technical assessment done previously by UNIDO or other institutions.
35The preparatory assistance often involves assessment of: UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 1. Context specific needs assessmentThe preparatory assistance often involves assessment of:Relevant legal and institutional frameworkSMTQ institutions in the countryCollection of baseline data on the quality of targeted products,Quality and quantity of services provided by the relevant testing laboratories and other service providers (sustainability),Value-chain analysis of the sectors identified as strategic or requiring support;Diagnostic of group of enterprises and service providersNeeds of conformity to standards (ISO 22000, GlobalGAP…... and Buyers demand
36UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS2-2. 2 UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS Trade Related Challenges Surveys at the enterprise level
37UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS2-2 UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS2-2. Trade Related Challenges Surveys at the enterprise levelUNIDO has developed a methodology for enterprise-level surveys on “Trade Related Challenges Faced by Exporters” aimed to:Qualify and quantify the problems exporters in developing countries are facing in the regional and international trade environment, by:Identifying common trade barriers related to:Supply side,Standards and conformity assessmentIntegration into the multi-lateral trading system2. And reviewing the possibilities of overcoming these obstacles through Trade Related Technical Assistance and Capacity Building (TRTA/CB) For example please refer to : or
38UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS2-2 UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS2-2. Trade Related Challenges Surveys at the enterprise levelthe survey aims to:Explore the nature and extent of challenges to the trade capacity of exporters in the respective country.Determine the factors associated with standards compliance across sub-sectors.Assess the impact of technical standards and regulations on the value of export sales.Identify mechanisms through which export performance could be enhanced.
39UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS2-2 UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS2-2. Trade Related Challenges Surveys at the enterprise levelBased on the methodology developed, pilot surveys were carried out in various countries (including Armenia, Bahrain, Cambodia, Jordan, Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Lao PDR, Lebanon, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, and also initiated in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Libya, Maldives, and Nepal) from different geographical areas, on different levels of economic development and having different economic structures.
40EXAMPLE: UNIDO BT SURVEY of 100 food exporters 2004 (new 2007) TOP 4 PROBLEMS:Price Competition (internal and external)tests certificates (recognition of local labs)Trade facilitation (affecting import/export)TariffsLOST ORDERS42% of respondents (food processors) lost orders in the last few years due to barriers to trade
41EXAMPLE: UNIDO BT SURVEY of 100 food exporters 2004 (new 2007) STANDARDS AND TESTINGTests and certificates from local labs: 52%Access to standards information 29%Compliance with standards (import) 15%ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUREAUCRATIC OBSTACLES(TRADE FACILITATION)Irregular additional payments I/E: 46%Custom formalities 37%Improper administrative practices 31%
43UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS Key Export Sectors Supply-Side constraints – UNIDO Competitiveness Analysis ToolSince 2004, UNIDO has been building up a competitiveness analysis programme to help countries identify:Sectors and products with competitive potentialSupply-driven obstacles affecting their export growth.UNIDO’s approach in the competitiveness analysis programme is to build the institutional capacity of national counterparts through:Awareness raising,Training,Transfer of databases and methodologies,Creation and supervision of specialised inter-institutional units in key Ministries and Chambers.
44UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS Key Export Sectors Supply-Side constraints – UNIDO Competitiveness Analysis ToolNation-wide assessment of trade and industry competitiveness. It positions the country in the international industrial scene and analyses the factors that drive national manufacturing growth;Value chain analysis of key strategic sectors. It identifies high value-added stages in the production process and the conditions under which a country can benefit from specialisation. It also analyses the potential markets for export;Product analysis methodology for trade negotiations. It gives negotiators an objective tool to identify potential winning and vulnerable products in trade agreements;Cost and transactions of doing business. It presents the framework conditions that influence investment decisions in key strategic sectors (e.g. labour and other industrial costs, infrastructure and logistics, laws and regulations, institutional arrangements, incentives in industrial zones, trade agreements, etc.);Industrial Observatory. It gives on-line access to all indicators of trade and industry competitiveness (both national and sectoral) to benchmark a country’s performance against main competitors, role models and global threats.
45UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS Key Export Sectors Supply-Side constraints – UNIDO Competitiveness Analysis ToolUTEPI Ecuador has produced Industrial Competitiveness Reports in 2004 and 2006; Cost and transactions of doing business in 2004 and 2005 (2008 updated on-line); and value-chain studies in Pineapple, Lime-Lemon, Cocoa (i.e. , Orange, and Palm oil;UTEPI Paraguay has published the Industrial Competitiveness Report 2007, and is about to launch the cost and transaction of doing business in Paraguay Value chain studies have been completed in Leather and Soya.UNIDO has developed an exchange programme to strengthen inter-institutional cooperation and information sharing among assisted countries. See for example;
46UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure Constraints
47Specific DCs’ Conformity Assessment Problems UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsSpecific DCs’ Conformity Assessment ProblemsPoor physical facilities/infrastructureInefficient institutional set up (Standards and conformity assessment functions, if existent, are scattered among too many institutions)Labs established (even with donor support) are neither sustainable, nor related to demandDonation of equipment with poor planning, training, and lacking adequate local physical infrastructure/staff, absorption capacity
48Specific DCs’ Conformity Assessment Problems UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsSpecific DCs’ Conformity Assessment ProblemsLack of fundingLack of demandLow-level of manufacturing due to focus on commoditiesExposed to barriers to trade especially SPS measuresPoor and uneven quality of local productsNational quality infrastructure lacks credibility, and tests and certificates by local laboratories are not recognized in export countries.
49To increase custom revenue generation. UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsWhy a CA Infrastructure is Necessary for DCsTo reduce the risk that domestic markets become a dumping ground for sub-standard and unsafe products.To ensure protection of the environment and achieve higher social responsibility.To improve consumer safety related activities (availability of testing facilities, particularly microbiological and chemical testing laboratories and legal metrology).To facilitate trade, access to export markets, and generate hard currency.To increase custom revenue generation.
50To allow integration of producers/traders in the global economy UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsWhy a CA Infrastructure is Necessary for DCsTo overcome risk of rejection of products in export markets due to lack of conformity (TBS and SPS).To prevent unscrupulous traders from taking advantage of a poor QC infrastructure, an enforced legal system for inspection and custom control is necessary.To allow integration of producers/traders in the global economyTo help the private sector to solve quality, compliance and certification problems hampering its aspiration to gain access to export markets and avoid multiple testing.
51UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS Analysis of Quality Infrastructure Constraints In its efforts to contribute to make the Aid for Trade initiative a success for Africa, UNIDO elaborated a questionnaire to identify the gaps and assess the specific needs of African countries in the field of quality infrastructure:Quality promotion,Metrology,Accreditation,StandardisationConformity assessmentTo allow better elaboration of trade capacity building projects at the national and sub-regional levels. See for example:
52Address the weaknesses of the infrastructure UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsThe UNIDO survey of the existing situation of quality infrastructures was the basis for the elaboration of an Action Plan for Africa to:Address the weaknesses of the infrastructureBuild trade capacity in African countriesImprove the prospects of economic development on the continent.The findings of this survey and the proposed UNIDO action plan were presented and discussed during the “Standards Compliance and Conformity Assessment for the Development of Sustainable Trade in Africa” Expert Group Meeting organized jointly with the African Union (AU) and held in Tunis in February 2007.
53UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsBuilding up on the initial survey, which covered 32 African Countries,UNIDO is currently updating the already received data while expanding at the same time the scope as well as the geographic coverage - Besides Africa, the current survey includes Asia, the Pacific Island States as well as the Arab region. In particular the survey aims to:Assess the priority needs for quality infrastructure upgrading Advocate more effective technical assistance Develop tailored projects for countries and sub-regions
54UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 4- Analysis of Quality Infrastructure ConstraintsLABNET provides access and dissemination of laboratory and activity information to its users. LABNET is under the umbrella of the UNIDO, and its primary function would be to provide information to the laboratories and the persons associated with the laboratories. The LABNET is covering the testing and calibration laboratories from all fields of science and have a wide database to cover all laboratories both accredited and non-accredited from all regions of the globe.LABNET VisionProvide access and dissemination of laboratory and activity informationShare experience with respect to laboratory design, management, development, maintenance, capabilitiesInteraction and response in various issues related to PT, CRM, traceability, trade related issuesAvenue for promotion / sourcing of laboratory and related servicesFacilitate information to industry / trade on testing / calibration and product specific informationPARTNERSUNIDO, WAITRO, Vinta Labs, India
55UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 5- Analysis of developing countries product refusals/notifications
56UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 5- Analysis of developing countries product refusals/notificationsStarting from the analysis of product refusals/notifications for developing countries originated by:1-The United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA),2-European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU-RASFF) and3-Japan (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)UNIDO worked out an enhanced classification of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs)/Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) to trade.
57UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 5- Analysis of developing countries product refusals/notificationsThe classification was developed in the context of the Multi-Agency Support Team established by the Group of Eminent Persons on Non-Tariff Barriers (MAST) through the SPS/TBT Sub-Groups with the participation of several international organizations (Codex Alimentarius, FAO, ITC, OECD, UNCTAD, WTO, US-ERS, and US-ITC) led by OECD and UNIDO.UNCTAD, UNIDO and ITC in cooperation with other MAST members (IMF, FAO, OECD, WTO, WB) launched in 2007 a Pilot Project on Collection and Quantification of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) Database (UNCTAD-DITC Draft, 18 July 2007).
58UNIDO CAPACITY EVALUATION AND NEEDS ASSESMENT TOOLS 5- Analysis of developing countries product refusals/notificationsAimed at developing a systematic methodology of definition and collection of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) the project covers nine pilot countries (Brazil, Chile, India, Kenya, Mozambique, Philippines, Switzerland, Thailand and Zambia).The objective is to initiate a country level data collection on NTMs that will help MAST to draw up an analytical framework to carry out a multi-agency effort in data collection process and prepare studies on the impact assessment of NTMs.
59Fishery/Seafood 717 refusals CHALLENGES IN ACCESSING MARKETS - Food Safety RequirementsFDA IMPORT REFUSALS for the African Countries by Sub-regionUNIDO ANALYSIS of Import Refusals, Source:US Food and Drug AdministrationFishery/Seafood 717 refusalsJanuary 2005 – December 2006
60“Aid for Trade”: UNIDO’s Main Contribution “Aid for Trade”: UNIDO’s Main Contribution Bringing back missing elementsSupply Capacity DevelopmentAgro-industry development - Capacity upgrading, productivity development(Process technology, cleaner production, quality management)Development of advisory capacity for enterprises to meet requirementsCluster development; Export consortia supportBusiness partnerships for investment, sub-contracting, tradeConformity InfrastructureEstablish access to and harmonization of standards & technical regulationsEstablishment of legal & regulatory frameworksUpgrading of laboratories for conformity assessment, product certificationTraining of auditors for ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO22000, ISO/IEC 17025….Pilot activities at enterprise level for on-the-job training of institutional service providers
61CONCLUSIONS CHALLENGES Developing industrial/productive capacities Access to Investment & TechnologyUpgrading to become competitiveLinking to Value Chains – SME Cluster and Export ConsortiaMeeting Quality/Safety requirements within TBT/SPS regimeAID FOR TRADERe-iterates support for Supply Capacity & ConformityEnsuring inter/agency cooperationInvolving Private sector as an Actor