Presentation on theme: "Regional approaches to labour mobility"— Presentation transcript:
1 Regional approaches to labour mobility Julia NielsonTrade DirectorateOECD
2 Structure of presentation OverviewSome Broad CategoriesConclusion
3 OverviewRegional agreements are preferential trade agreements, not labour mobility agreementsMost are connected with the supply of servicesAnd other forms of movement directly related to trade and investmentSome agreements aim for deep integration and the creation of a single economic spaceThese allow for broader mobility, beyond trade, and beyond labour
4 Overview Continuum of approaches Mobility of people in general (including permanent migration and non-workers)Free movement of labour, including entry to the local labour marketFacilitation for certain kinds of trade- or investment-related activitiesGATS model – only temporary movement and only for service suppliersThis variety reflects, e.g., geographical proximity, levels of development, cultural and historical ties.
5 Overview Symbiotic relationship between RTAs and the GATS NAFTA provided model for GATSOther RTAs use GATS model (e.g., EU-Mexico, US-Jordan)RTAs also feed off each otherLatin American agreements; proposals in FTAA resemble NAFTA and EU-Mexico
6 Overview Need to be careful comparing RTAs (apples and oranges) Some restrictions are unnecessary when the RTA doesn’t offer a certain kind of accessE.g., EU specification that certain jobs reserved for nationals only required in context broad mobilitySome RTAs offer broad mobility, but exclude some sectors; others cover all sectors but limit mobility to certain defined groups.
7 OverviewFacilitated movement of people does not always equal right to provide specific servicesNeed to read in conjunction with liberalisation commitments on particular service sectors for all types of agreementAgreements can exclude certain service sectors from coverage; apply special rules to certain sectorsProfessions remain governed by national regulations on licensing and qualifications
8 OverviewRTAs not providing full labour or service supplier mobility tend to use GATS-type carve outsExclude permanent migration and access to labour marketDon’t impinge on right to regulate entry and stay of individualsMost RTAs are subject to general immigration legislationParties retain discretion to grant, refuse and administer residence permits
9 Structure of presentation OverviewSome Broad CategoriesConclusion
10 Some Broad CategoriesSome cover movement only under mode 4 in services chaptere.g., MERCOSUR, US-JordanSome group all mobility (investment and goods related) in a separate chaptere.g, Group of Three, Japan-SingaporeOthers include reference to mobility of key personnel in investment provisionse.g., ASEANOr sectoral chapterse.g., EU-Mexico on financial services
11 Some Broad CategoriesIdentify broad groupings based on text, not implementationFull mobility of labourEU, EEA, EFTA, COMESA, Trans-Tasman Travel ArrangementMarket access for certain groups, including beyond service suppliers and/or agreements grouping all mobility in a separate chapterCARICOM, NAFTA, Canada-Chile, Europe Agreements, Japan-Singapore, Group of Three
12 Some Broad CategoriesAgreements using GATS model with some additional elementsUS-Jordan, EU-Mexico, AFTA, Euro-Med (Morocco, Tunisia)Agreements using the GATS modelMERCOSURAgreements providing no market access but facilitated entryAPEC, SAARCSome are works in progressSADC
13 Some Broad CategoriesAdditionally, some RTAs create special visa schemes or other types of managed entryTrade NAFTA visasAPEC Business Travel CardExperience might be interesting for GATSIndicates that the more diverse the membership, more scope allowed for existing regimesAdministrative capacity a major issueOthers try to give access under existing visa schemesCan lead to difficult discussions about who gets to make policy
14 Structure of presentation OverviewSome Broad CategoriesConclusion
15 Conclusion Labour provisions in RTAs illustrate Range of options for access, calibrated to national needsNeed for close policy coordination and dialogue between migration and trade authoritiesNeed to consider how to implement commitments and administrative capacity required