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Regional approaches to labour mobility Julia Nielson Trade Directorate OECD.

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Presentation on theme: "Regional approaches to labour mobility Julia Nielson Trade Directorate OECD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regional approaches to labour mobility Julia Nielson Trade Directorate OECD

2 Structure of presentation Overview Overview Some Broad Categories Some Broad Categories Conclusion Conclusion

3 Overview Regional agreements are preferential trade agreements, not labour mobility agreements Regional agreements are preferential trade agreements, not labour mobility agreements Most are connected with the supply of servicesMost are connected with the supply of services And other forms of movement directly related to trade and investmentAnd other forms of movement directly related to trade and investment Some agreements aim for deep integration and the creation of a single economic space Some agreements aim for deep integration and the creation of a single economic space These allow for broader mobility, beyond trade, and beyond labourThese allow for broader mobility, beyond trade, and beyond labour

4 Overview Continuum of approaches Continuum of approaches Mobility of people in general (including permanent migration and non-workers)Mobility of people in general (including permanent migration and non-workers) Free movement of labour, including entry to the local labour marketFree movement of labour, including entry to the local labour market Facilitation for certain kinds of trade- or investment-related activitiesFacilitation for certain kinds of trade- or investment-related activities GATS model – only temporary movement and only for service suppliersGATS model – only temporary movement and only for service suppliers This variety reflects, e.g., geographical proximity, levels of development, cultural and historical ties. This variety reflects, e.g., geographical proximity, levels of development, cultural and historical ties.

5 Overview Symbiotic relationship between RTAs and the GATS Symbiotic relationship between RTAs and the GATS NAFTA provided model for GATSNAFTA provided model for GATS Other RTAs use GATS model (e.g., EU- Mexico, US-Jordan)Other RTAs use GATS model (e.g., EU- Mexico, US-Jordan) RTAs also feed off each other RTAs also feed off each other Latin American agreements; proposals in FTAA resemble NAFTA and EU-MexicoLatin American agreements; proposals in FTAA resemble NAFTA and EU-Mexico

6 Overview Need to be careful comparing RTAs (apples and oranges) Need to be careful comparing RTAs (apples and oranges) Some restrictions are unnecessary when the RTA doesnt offer a certain kind of accessSome restrictions are unnecessary when the RTA doesnt offer a certain kind of access E.g., EU specification that certain jobs reserved for nationals only required in context broad mobility E.g., EU specification that certain jobs reserved for nationals only required in context broad mobility Some RTAs offer broad mobility, but exclude some sectors; others cover all sectors but limit mobility to certain defined groups.Some RTAs offer broad mobility, but exclude some sectors; others cover all sectors but limit mobility to certain defined groups.

7 Overview Facilitated movement of people does not always equal right to provide specific services Facilitated movement of people does not always equal right to provide specific services Need to read in conjunction with liberalisation commitments on particular service sectors for all types of agreementNeed to read in conjunction with liberalisation commitments on particular service sectors for all types of agreement Agreements can exclude certain service sectors from coverage; apply special rules to certain sectors Agreements can exclude certain service sectors from coverage; apply special rules to certain sectors Professions remain governed by national regulations on licensing and qualifications Professions remain governed by national regulations on licensing and qualifications

8 Overview RTAs not providing full labour or service supplier mobility tend to use GATS-type carve outsRTAs not providing full labour or service supplier mobility tend to use GATS-type carve outs Exclude permanent migration and access to labour market Exclude permanent migration and access to labour market Dont impinge on right to regulate entry and stay of individuals Dont impinge on right to regulate entry and stay of individuals Most RTAs are subject to general immigration legislationMost RTAs are subject to general immigration legislation Parties retain discretion to grant, refuse and administer residence permits Parties retain discretion to grant, refuse and administer residence permits

9 Structure of presentation Overview Overview Some Broad Categories Some Broad Categories Conclusion Conclusion

10 Some Broad Categories Some cover movement only under mode 4 in services chapterSome cover movement only under mode 4 in services chapter e.g., MERCOSUR, US-Jordane.g., MERCOSUR, US-Jordan Some group all mobility (investment and goods related) in a separate chapterSome group all mobility (investment and goods related) in a separate chapter e.g, Group of Three, Japan-Singaporee.g, Group of Three, Japan-Singapore Others include reference to mobility of key personnel in investment provisionsOthers include reference to mobility of key personnel in investment provisions e.g., ASEANe.g., ASEAN Or sectoral chaptersOr sectoral chapters e.g., EU-Mexico on financial servicese.g., EU-Mexico on financial services

11 Some Broad Categories Identify broad groupings based on text, not implementation Identify broad groupings based on text, not implementation Full mobility of labourFull mobility of labour EU, EEA, EFTA, COMESA, Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement EU, EEA, EFTA, COMESA, Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement Market access for certain groups, including beyond service suppliers and/or agreements grouping all mobility in a separate chapterMarket access for certain groups, including beyond service suppliers and/or agreements grouping all mobility in a separate chapter CARICOM, NAFTA, Canada-Chile, Europe Agreements, Japan-Singapore, Group of Three CARICOM, NAFTA, Canada-Chile, Europe Agreements, Japan-Singapore, Group of Three

12 Some Broad Categories Agreements using GATS model with some additional elementsAgreements using GATS model with some additional elements US-Jordan, EU-Mexico, AFTA, Euro-Med (Morocco, Tunisia) US-Jordan, EU-Mexico, AFTA, Euro-Med (Morocco, Tunisia) Agreements using the GATS modelAgreements using the GATS model MERCOSUR MERCOSUR Agreements providing no market access but facilitated entryAgreements providing no market access but facilitated entry APEC, SAARC APEC, SAARC Some are works in progressSome are works in progress SADC SADC

13 Some Broad Categories Additionally, some RTAs create special visa schemes or other types of managed entryAdditionally, some RTAs create special visa schemes or other types of managed entry Trade NAFTA visasTrade NAFTA visas APEC Business Travel CardAPEC Business Travel Card Experience might be interesting for GATS Experience might be interesting for GATS Indicates that the more diverse the membership, more scope allowed for existing regimesIndicates that the more diverse the membership, more scope allowed for existing regimes Administrative capacity a major issue Administrative capacity a major issue Others try to give access under existing visa schemesOthers try to give access under existing visa schemes Can lead to difficult discussions about who gets to make policy Can lead to difficult discussions about who gets to make policy

14 Structure of presentation Overview Overview Some Broad Categories Some Broad Categories Conclusion Conclusion

15 Conclusion Labour provisions in RTAs illustrate Labour provisions in RTAs illustrate Range of options for access, calibrated to national needsRange of options for access, calibrated to national needs Need for close policy coordination and dialogue between migration and trade authoritiesNeed for close policy coordination and dialogue between migration and trade authorities Need to consider how to implement commitments and administrative capacity requiredNeed to consider how to implement commitments and administrative capacity required


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