Presentation on theme: "The UNECE World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29)"— Presentation transcript:
1 The UNECE World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) Presentation at the World Trade Organization (WTO), TBT CommitteeGeneva, 9 November 2011J. Ramos, Chief, Vehicle Regulations Section & Secretary to WP.29 UNECE TRANSPORT DIVISION
2 The UNECE World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) IntroductionGoals and structure of the presentationInform about World Forum activitiesUN Agreements (1958 &1998) and PartiesHow the Agreements can cooperate to the elimination of TBT?ConclusionRoad transport in general and vehicle regulations in particular are complex systems with implications on road safety and security, energy consumption and the environment as well as on TRADE. More that 50 years ago, Governments realized the crucial need to harmonize internationally the vehicle requirements in order to facilitate border crossing and trade of vehicles and to update these requirements regularly in order to cover new technologies. This is exactly the mandate of the World Forum on the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (so-called WP.29), and previously known as Working Party on the Construction of Vehicles.This presentation aims to inform WTO and mainly its TBT Committee on the worldwide harmonized work of the World Forum.It is useful and worldwide recognized as the unique forum to increase safety and environmental performance of vehicles and, at the same time, to facilitate international trade.We are here to request your support on spreading the knowledge of the work performed by WP.29 and to avoid duplication of a work that is now in progress by the UNECE World Forum for more than 50 years with a considerable level of efficiency. Countries developing their national legislation on road vehicles should be informed about the WP.29 results to follow it as much as possible. They should also be invited to consider their participation at the worldwide harmonized process, as a mean to increase road safety and protection of the environment.
3 Structure of the UNECE World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) Historical BackgroundHow WP.29 is organized and structuredThe 1958 & 1998 AgreementsContracting Parties to the AgreementsI will present you the structure of the World Forum. I will not explain in detail its activities in the development of vehicle regulations in the past and in the present time, including measures taken and to be taken to increase vehicle safety and to reduce their emissions, including CO2, and thus mitigate climate change, it will take too long.I will inform you about the two Agreements on vehicle regulations administered by the World Forum.Later on, I will explain you the main characteristics of the two Agreements on the construction of vehicles: the ‘58 Agreement and ‘98 Agreement.I will also present you the Contracting Parties which acceded to these Agreements.
4 Historical background of WP.29 1949: Convention on Road Traffic -> Resolution No. 451952: Establishment of WP.291958: ‘58 Agreement1997: ‘97 Agreement1998: ‘98 Agreement2000: World Forum2011: Market fuel quality StandardsHistorical background: Under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, a set of general technical requirements for vehicle characteristics was adopted in the Convention on Road Traffic in 1949 and a resolution (namely Resolution No. 45 of the Subcommittee on Road Transport SC.1) called for the establishment of a working party of experts competent in the field of technical requirements for road vehicles. Based on this resolution, WP.29 (Working Party No. 29) was established on 6 June 1952.In March 1958, the Federal Republic of Germany proposed to establish an agreement under the auspices of the UNECE in order to facilitate the adoption of uniform conditions for the approval of motor vehicles and their reciprocal recognition. The so-called ‘58 Agreement entered into force on 20 June 1959.In 1997, the World Forum established the ‘97 Agreement regarding provisions on the Periodical Technical Inspections of vehicles in use.In 1998, WP.29 established the ‘98 global Agreement, the so-called parallel Agreement to the ‘58 Agreement.In 2000, WP.29 became the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29), previously known as the Working Party on the Construction of Vehicles.In June 2008, the World Forum already celebrated the 50th Anniversary of the 1958 Agreement.In 2011 a first set of requirements for market fuel quality will be adopted by WP.29
5 Structure of the World Forum WP.29 ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE COORDINATION OF WORKUNITED NATIONSECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPEUN/ECELIGHTING AND LIGHT-SIGNALLING (GRE)ACTIVE SAFETYBRAKES AND RUNNING GEAR (GRRF)PASSIVE SAFETYPASSIVE SAFETY (GRSP)INLAND TRANSPORT COMMITTEE (ITC)POLLUTION AND ENERGY (GRPE)ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIONWORLD FORUM FOR HARMONIZATION OF VEHICLE REGULATIONS (WP.29)Within the UNECE, the World Forum reports to the Inland Transport Committee, which deals with policy issues concerning inland transport (i.e. roads, railways and waterways; however air and maritime are excluded).The activities of the World Forum are focussed on active safety (i.e. crash-avoidance) and passive safety (i.e. crash-worthiness) of road vehicles as well as on the environmental protection and general safety issues. Road vehicles means 2 & 3 wheeled vehicles, passenger cars, buses & coaches, light & heavy duty vehicles, agricultural & forestry tractors and non-road mobile machinery.The six permanent Working Parties subsidiary to WP.29 are very active. They worked out more than 135 regulations and rules, which are continuously adapted to technical progress.The expert groups GRE on lighting and light-signalling and GRRF on braking and running gear are working on subjects to avoid vehicle crashes;GRSP is working on crash-worthiness issues, i.e. on the protection of occupants and pedestrians in case of a vehicle collision or impact;GRPE and GRB are working environmental issues, like the reduction of engine emissions of gaseous pollutants and of vehicle noise levels;GRSG is dealing with general safety issues not covered by the other groups (like safety glazing, rear-view mirrors, superstructure of buses, advance warming triangles, etc.)Under WP.29 and its 6 Working Parties, more than 30 informal working groups have been established as expert groups with a time-limit mandate (~2 years) to work on specific subjects.Experts from the whole world are participating on a regular basis in all these meetings: Governmental experts representing the Contracting Parties to the Agreements, experts from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) representing e.g. the automotive industry or their suppliers (e.g. CLEPA, ETRTO), the vehicle drivers or other road users. Over a year, more than 1600 delegates are participating in 15 expert meetings with of total of 54 full day sessions (the informal group meetings not included). Every year more than 40 vehicle regulations are updated to technical progress and one or two new regulations are adopted.It is important to stress that only the Governments that are Contracting Parties to the Agreements can vote and adopt the new regulations and the amendments to the existing regulations.NOISE (GRB)GENERAL SAFETYGENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS (GRSG)40 INFORMAL GROUPS3 COMMITTEES FOR THE AGREEMENTS
6 Environmental Protection As an example of the real results, I would like to present you how WP.29 has adopted the limits for the reduction of the of emissions of gaseous pollutants such carbon monoxide CO (yellow), hydrocarbons HC (blue) and nitrogen oxides NOx (green), WP.29 could make since 1970’s, a substantial abatements of 95-97% in emission limits (more 20 times lower than those established 40 years ago and in  more than 100 times lower).Regarding particulate emissions, the levels are now more than 5 times lower than those in 1990 (and in 2011 more the 50 times lower).These are large step forward to cleaner vehicle engines and WP.29 goes forward.
7 Agreements administered by WP.29 The World Forum administers 3 Agreements: ‘58 Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions (48 Contracting Parties, 127 UNECE Regulations) ‘98 Agreement concerning the establishing of global technical regulations (gtrs) for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicle (31 Contracting Parties, 11 gtrs, adopted in 2009) ‘97 Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform conditions for periodical technical inspections of wheeled vehicles and the reciprocal recognition of such inspections (11 Contracting Parties, 17 pending signatories, 1 Rule, 1 draft Rule) The 58 & 98 have similar technical provisions (parallel)Today, the World Forum administers 3 Agreements:‘58 Agreement and the annexed 127 UNECE Regulations which include: (a) technical requirements and test methods by which performance requirements (to allow any technology) are to be demonstrated; (b) the administrative procedure for granting type approvals and their reciprocal recognition, including markings and conditions for ensuring conformity of production (COP). The Agreement has commemorated in June 2008 its 50th anniversary.Nevertheless, some countries were not in the position to join the ‘58 Agreement, as the mutual recognition was not acceptable for them. Thus, the World Forum adopted in 1998, in parallel to the ‘58 Agreement, the ’98 Agreement concerning the establishing of global technical regulations (gtrs) for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or used on wheeled vehicles.WP.29 agreed on the necessity that the vehicles have to respect the emission and safety regulations in all potential operating conditions during its whole lifetime. In this respect, the World Forum set up, in 1997, an Agreement which provides the legal framework and procedures for the adoption of uniform Rules for carrying out technical inspections of vehicles in use and for reciprocal recognition of the certificates of such inspections. At the present time, 1 Rule has been set up to cover the prescriptions for the environmental protection, and WP.29 is considering a draft Rule on the technical inspection with regard to vehicle safety issues e.g. like braking, lighting, etc.This presentation will not go into the details of the ’97 Agreement. It is focussed in the 2 agreements on the construction of vehicles.
8 WP.29 is worldwide, unique and transparent Agreements open to all nations of the UN, GOs and NGOsDecisions taken by Governments of CPsNo other worldwide organization cover this areaTransparency: All regulations, calendar of meetings, agendas, working & informal documents and reports are freely available at the WP.29 website:(including the Terms of Reference & Rules of Procedures as well as the status documents of the 3 Agreements)WORLDWIDE: Agreements open to all nations of the UN, GOs and NGOs, but the decisions taken by Governments of CPs ONLY.The other countries, GOs and NGOs have a consultative status. They can, nevertheless, make proposals that are considered by the World Forum (in the case of 59 Agreement. In the 1998 Agreement only CPS can make proposals).However, the final decision and adoption are always taken by the Contracting Parties to the Agreement concerned.About 52 Contracting Parties are participating on a regular basis in the 108 half-day sessions of the World Forum as well as more than 30 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) from the automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, drivers, consumers, oil industry, etc.UNIQUE: WP.29 is a unique World Forum for the global harmonization of regulations related to the construction of vehicles. No other organization cover this area worldwide. EU and Russian Federation refers directly to the Regulations annexed to the 1958 Agreement.TRANSPARENT: Open participation of any country, OGs and NGOsAll documents, including non-official documents of the informal groups, are freely available at the website. No need of a password even.The terms of reference and rules of procedures of the Word Forum are available at:And in the status documents of the Agreements, you may find:titles of the different Regulations, Contracting Parties applying the Regulations, their technical services authorized to perform the approval tests, technical status and entry into force of the amendments to a specific regulation, etc.(for the ’58 Agreement: see ECE/TRANS/WP.29/343/Rev.17 and its addenda, available at:(for the ’98 Agreement: see ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2009/43, available at:(for the ’97 Agreement: see ECE/TRANS/WP.29/2009/44, available at:Official working languages are English, French and Russian. All documentation are freely available at the WP.29 website on the Internet address mentioned on this slide. If there is a need to have more information about the structure of the WP.29 website.
9 Contracting PartiesThis is the geographical spread of the Contracting Parties to the ‘58 and ‘98 Agreements, which are, as you know, both relating to technical prescriptions for the construction of vehicles.As you can see in this slide, most of the Contracting Parties have signed both agreements, marked in black colour.A number of East-European countries have signed only the ’58 Agreement; andCanada, the USA, China and India have signed only the ’98 Agreement (we have recently been informed about India’s intention to adhere also to the ’58 Agreement).Today, 48 countries adhered to the 1958 Agreement i.e. all countries in the European region, except Moldavia and Island, as well as a large number of non-European countries such as Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Tunisia.Japan and South Africa are taking a promoting role of the 1958 Agreement in they respective regions.31 countries have accede so far to the 1998 Agreement.More than 85 % of the worldwide vehicle and parts production is based on these countries
10 The ‘58 Agreement (1) Key Provisions: Regulations are annexed to the Agreement and therefore part of it; they are considered as international lawCPs are free to be bound by all, some or no RegulationRegulations apply to a type of vehicles, equipment or parts as specified in the scope of the Regulationa new Regulation is adopted by a 2/3 majority of the Administrative Committee (AC.1 = representatives of CPs), but in practise by unanimityUN SG notifies a new Regulation to all CPsRegulations apply to each CP that does not notify to the SG its objection or intention to cease the application (6 months)same procedure applies to amendments of Regulations (i.e. to adapt to the technical progress an existing Regulation)CP means Contracting PartiesUN SG means United Nations Secretary GeneralAC means Administrative Committtee
11 The ‘58 Agreement (2)UNECE Regulations are applied by countries without amendments (BASIC FOR MUTUAL RECOGNITION)Any CP can cease the application of a Regulation 1 year notice by notification to the UN SGUNECE Regulations include:technical prescriptions, regarding the testing methodconditions (performance requirements) for granting a type approval (including limit values)Different levels of stringency (at request 20% of CPs) to facilitate the regulatory activities of developing countriesconditions for the mutual recognition of the type approvalsrequirements for the E-markingprescriptions for conformity of production
12 The ‘58 Agreement (3)Contracting Parties: 49 countries (incl. European Community EC)(Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, Hungary, Czech Republic, Spain, Serbia and Montenegro, United Kingdom, Austria Luxembourg, Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Romania, Poland Portugal, Russian Federation, Greece, Ireland, Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Belarus, Estonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Latvia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Macedonia, EC, Japan, Australia, Ukraine, South Africa, Cyprus, Malta, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Montenegro, Tunisia and Albania)Other countries like Indonesia, India, Philippines, Argentina, Colombia, Egypt,.. have either initiated the accession to the Agreement or are considering their possible accession to it.Some countries, like Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Philippines… use as national legislation the Regulations annexed to the 1958 AgreementThe EU has decided to replace 63 of its vehicle directives by reference to the Regulations.The Russian Federation has taken a similar action.Some countries apply UNECE Regulations on a national basis (no mutual recognition) without having adhered to the Agreement.We have been informed that Indonesia, India, Argentina and Egypt are considering to accede to the Agreement. Egypt confirmed last week that the process is in progress.Some countries, like Brazil, Argentina, Chile, … use as national legislation the Regulations annexed to the 1958 Agreement, no mutual recognition.The EU has decided to replace some of its vehicle directives by reference to the Regulations.The Russian Federation took a similar action in November 2009.
13 The ‘98 Agreement (1) Key provisions: Compendium of Candidate UN Global Technical Regulations (UNGTRs): national regulationsDevelop UN GTRS at the highest level of stringencyUN GTRs may specify alternative non-global levels of stringency as well as alternative test procedures to facilitate regulatory activities of developing economiesAdoption of UN GTRs by consensus vote of the Executive Committee (AC.3) of the Agreement, present and votingRegistry of UN Global Technical Regulations (UN GTR)Initiate adoption into national/regional legislationCPs can decide not to apply the UN GTR or transpose it with amendmentsPeriodical reports to the SG on the process of transpositionThe objectives of the ´98 Agreement are more or less the same than those of the ´58 Agreement: i.e. to improve globally the safety, the environmental protection, the fuel efficiency and the anti-theft performance of vehicles and of their components and equipment.However the procedure to achieve this objective is different:- Through establishing into the Compendium of candidate gtrs national regulations (all UNECE Regulations are listed in the Compendium)- Then the WP.29 Working Party is mandated to develop a draft gtr, which should be harmonized at the highest level of stringency- However, a gtr include alternative non-global levels of stringency as well as alternative test procedures when there is a need to facilitate the regulatory activities of developing countries- The draft gtr needs then to be adopted by consensus vote by the Executive Committee (AC.3) of the ´98 Agreement- The established gtr is then listed in the Global Registry of global technical regulations (accessible via UNECE website)- Contracting Parties voting in favour shall initiate internal procedures to incorporate gtr into their national/regional legislationHowever, the ´98 Agreement gives a CP much more flexibility to transpose an established gtr:- A CP, which voted in favour, may decide not to transpose a gtr into its national legislation but has to inform the SG about this decision- CPs have to report periodically to SG on the status of adoption of the gtr- A CP not adopting a gtr may decide to accept products in compliance with the prescriptions of the gtr- A CP may introduce an amended gtr as national law
14 The ‘98 Agreement (2)UN Global Technical Regulations can be amended when transposed to national law (almost total harmonization)Any CP may decide to rescind the application of a global technical regulations informing the UN SGUN GTRs include:technical prescriptions, the testing method (eventually alternative provisions andperformance requirements, including limit valuesNo administrative provisionsNo certification procedureNo conformity of productionNo reciprocal recognitionSimilar to the UNECE Regulation, each gtr specifies the purpose of the regulation, its application and scope, the definitions used as well as the technical prescriptions of the test methods, if necessary alternative requirements, and finally performance requirements, such as limit values.The gtrs have no administrative procedures neither for the certification, nor the conformity of production or the mutual recognition by other CP.It is up to the CPs to define these administrative procedures when transposing the gtr into the national legislation.
15 The ‘98 Agreement (3)Contracting Parties: 31 countries (incl. European Union EU(Canada, USA, Japan, France, United Kingdom, EU, Germany, Russian Federation, P.R. of China, Republic of Korea, Italy, South Africa, Finland, Hungary, Turkey, Slovakia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Azerbaijan, Spain, Romania, Sweden, Norway, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malaysia, India, Lithuania, Moldova, Tunisia and Australia)
16 WP.29 – How It Works/How to join it? A lot of further information can be found in our so-called blue book “WP.29 – How it works / How to join it”, which was published in 2002.It is available in the 6 official UN languages (E, F, R, Chinese, Arabic and Spanish) at the WP.29 website mentioned on the slide. WP.29 intends to update it in the next years.Indeed, on the WP.29 website you can find all kind of information about the work of the World Forum and its procedures are totally transparent.
17 Can WP.29 regulations cooperate to the elimination of Technical Barriers to Trade? Agreements develop regulations with technical provisions similar set of provisions for the countries Parties to the AgreementsRegulations developed by WP.29 have proved their efficiency in safety and environmental protectionDeveloping new regulations is an expensive and technically difficult taskWhy not recommending the application of world-wide developed vehicle regulations instead of developing new vehicle regulations?Developing economies can apply “previous” versions of WP.29 regulations as an step to the total harmonization of vehicle regulationsA lot of further information can be found in our so-called blue book “WP.29 – How it works / How to join it”, which was published in 2002.It is available in the 6 official UN languages (E, F, R, Chinese, Arabic and Spanish) at the WP.29 website mentioned on the slide. WP.29 intends to update it in the next years.Indeed, on the WP.29 website you can find all kind of information about the work of the World Forum and its procedures are totally transparent.
18 Can WP.29 regulations cooperate to the elimination of Technical Barriers to Trade? Differences between the regulations by Agreements1958 : Countries shall apply the UN Regulations without amendments1998 : Countries can transpose UN GRTs with amendmentsMutual recognition of the type-approvals granted1958: Vehicle type approved by country “A” accepted by all countries (Parties)1998: No administrative provisionsAdoption of Regulations1958: 2/3 majority of the Contracting Parties1998: consensus
19 The World Forum for Harmonization for Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONWorld Forum WP.29 websiteA lot of further information can be found in our so-called blue book “WP.29 – How it works / How to join it”, which was published in 2002.It is available in the 6 official UN languages (E, F, R, Chinese, Arabic and Spanish) at the WP.29 website mentioned on the slide. WP.29 intends to update it in the next years.Indeed, on the WP.29 website you can find all kind of information about the work of the World Forum and its procedures are totally transparent.
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