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The 2008 Market Access Proposals and Developing Countries David Laborde, Will Martin & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe Geneva, 2 November 2010 This work.

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Presentation on theme: "The 2008 Market Access Proposals and Developing Countries David Laborde, Will Martin & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe Geneva, 2 November 2010 This work."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 2008 Market Access Proposals and Developing Countries David Laborde, Will Martin & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe Geneva, 2 November 2010 This work represents the views of the authors alone

2 Analyzing the 2008 market access reforms How we represent the formulas & flexibilities Implications for tariffs levied & faced Implications for real incomes Roadmap

3 The Tiered Formula for Agric MA DevelopedDeveloping TierRange, % CutRange, % Cut I0-20500-30 33.3 II20-505730-80 38 III50-756480-130 42.7 IVIV>7570>130 46.7 Average cutMin54Max 36

4 The Tiered Formula in Agriculture

5 Add in deeper cuts Tariff Escalation Products Processed products subject to tariff escalation are moved up a tier. Top tier – add 6% pts Tropical & diversification products Short product list Tariffs 10 0 10-75, cut by 70% 75, cut by 78%

6 Country flexibilities Least Developed Countries No cuts required. Increase NAMA bindings Small & Vulnerable Economies (SVEs) Agric cuts 10% pts less in each tier or average-cut of 24% NAMA: bind at an average tariff of 30% or lower Recently-Acceded Members (RAMs) agric Cuts reduced by 8% pts in each band Zero cuts below 10% 1/10 th more Special Products Para 6 Countries (NAMA only) <35% of tariffs bound No cuts but must bind most tariffs

7 Product flexibilities: Sensitive Products Available to all members 5% of lines for industrial countries; 1/3 more for developing; 2% more if 6-digit, or >30% in top tier TRQs and sensitive products Cut down by 2/3 TRQ up 4% of consumption Cut reduced 1/3 TRQ up only 3% We expect most will use 2/3 reduction, Assume quota expansion offsets 1/3 cut 2/3 cut

8 Agricultural Special Products Developing countries self-designate Indicators very flexible Assume 14% of agricultural tariffs 5% of lines with no cuts Average cut of 11%

9 NAMA: Swiss Formula t 1 = a*t 0 /(a+t 0 )

10 Swiss Formula Coefficients Developed a = 8 Developing: a = 20 with (i) 6.5% unbound on 7.5% of imports, or (ii)½ cuts on 14% of lines 16% imports, or a =22 with (i)5/5% of tariff lines/imports uncut, or (ii)½ cuts on 10/10% of lines/imports a = 25 with no flexibilities

11 Selection for product flexibilities Highest-tariff rule frequently used Frequently includes products where no cut needed Includes many trivial products– corn stalks? Suggests flexibilities have minor impacts We assume policy makers chose tariffs to maximize political support Allows us to assess which tariff cuts are most painful Approach selects products that are important, and where large tariff cuts are required Impacts of flexibilities on tariffs large

12 Approach to implementation Apply formulas to bound tariffs Assess impacts on applied rates Include flexibilities Identify the sensitive/special products that minimize the political pain Identify the best option for NAMA flexibilities Check that agric tariff cuts meet min/max average-cut requirements Adjust cuts if needed

13 Tariff Scenarios Base Formula without flexibilities Formula plus flexibilities

14 Agricultural tariffs levied, % BaseFormulaFlex Australia NZ2.51.51.9 Bangladesh16.4 Brazil4.84.74.8 Canada10.75.18.6 China7.85.37.5 EU-2715.96.610.2 India59.254.659.2 Indonesia7.67.07.6 Japan29.814.020.4 Korea and Taiwan Pr.27.818.527.1 USA4.82.13.0 All countries Developing (non-LDC) 13.311.3 13.2 High income countries 15.57.511.1 LDCs 12.512.212.5

15 Agricultural tariffs faced, % BaseFormulaFlex Australia NZ 17.310.213.9 Bangladesh 14.712.614.4 Brazil 18.89.813.7 Canada China 16.89.713.8 EU-27 16.610.613.6 India Indonesia 21.519.420.4 Japan 14.09.912.7 Korea &Taiwan 16.010.812.8 USA 14.08.511.3 All countries Developing 14.48.8 11.7 High income 15.19.312.3 LDCs

16 NAMA tariffs levied, % BaseFormulaFlex Australia NZ 3.62.4 Bangladesh 18.312.518.3 Brazil Canada 0.90.5 China EU-27 1.81.0 India 12.911.712.0 Indonesia Japan 1.30.7 Korea &Taiwan Pr. USA 1.50.8 All countries Developing (non-LDC) High income 1.61.0 LDCs

17 NAMA Tariffs Faced, % BaseFormulaFlex Australia NZ Bangladesh Brazil Canada 0.40.3 China EU-27 India Indonesia Japan Korea & Taiwan Pr. Sub-Saharan Africa USA All countries Developing (non LDC) High income LDCs

18 Optimal Aggregation & Income Gains Traditional to use weighted average tariffs This wastes valuable information As a tariff rises, the weight on that good declines For this analysis, we use optimal weights Allow for rising weights as imports rise Take account of the rise in tariff revenues as import volumes rise Substantially increases real income gains even with very conservative estimates of flexibility

19 Welfare gains, optimal weights, $bn FullFormulaFlex Australia/N Zealand16.84.82.4 EU 27180.458.739.3 USA53.814.59.9 Japan64.929.221.8 Korea & Taiwan98.721.29.8 Bangladesh0.2-0.2 Brazil30.89.84.7 China- India24.36.12.4 Indonesia3.91.51.0 Thailand8.74.52.6 Sub Saharan Africa High income countries 48414091 Developing Countries 2416231 World total 725202121

20 Too much emphasis on flexibilities? Political gains are obvious, the costs less so Exceptions often snowball And their costs often take surprising forms Less impact on tariff cuts in developing ctry agriculture Larger cuts in developing country income gains Important to consider gain as well as pain Should future negotiations use less ambitious formulas & fewer exceptions? If use flexibilities, the # of lines is not effective limit

21 Doha matters for many other reasons Increased security of market access In agriculture, NAMA, Services Ruling out agric export subsidies, disciplining domestic support Duty-free-quota-free access for LDCs Although the 3% exceptions diminish Trade Facilitation may give large gains Initial steps on fishing subsidies

22 Conclusions on Market Access Formulas involve deep cuts in tariffs Especially in the industrial countries Flexibilities reduce cuts substantially Need to rigorously account for these The highest tariff rule v. misleading Even with flexibilities, substantial improvements in market access Agric tariffs against developing countries cut 20% NAMA tariffs against developing ctries cut 27% Welfare gains bigger with better measures

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