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World Trade Indicators 2008 Ravindra A. Yatawara May 18 th - May 19 th to 2009 Geneva,

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Presentation on theme: "World Trade Indicators 2008 Ravindra A. Yatawara May 18 th - May 19 th to 2009 Geneva,"— Presentation transcript:

1 World Trade Indicators 2008 http://www.worldbank.org/wti2008 http://www.worldbank.org/wti2008 Ravindra A. Yatawara May 18 th - May 19 th to 2009 Geneva, Switzerland

2 Structure of WTI database: organizing for users TRADE OUTCOME TRADE POLICY EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS/ INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT TRADE FACILITATION

3 TRADE FACILITATION What gets measured, get managed Logistics Performance Index (LPI) Trading Across Borders- DB Others Indicators- e.g. Liner Shipping Connectivity Index

4 Thick borders imply high trade costs that: constrain access to regional and global markets, and lower competitiveness of firms and their scope to exploit scale and diversify In Context of Global Economic Crisis Trade Facilitation Reform seen as key to penetrating shrinking export markets

5 The Challenge

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7 www.worldbank.org/lpi Ranking and component Logistics business environment and institutions Performance data Available as rankings, maps, scorecards Contact: tradefacilitation@worldbank.org

8 Partnership with the private sector Built on 5,500 country assessments by more than 800 logistics professionals worldwide: Assessments from professionals outside the country, trading with it Assessment of domestic business environment and institutions and time and cost data Questionnaire designed with input from trade and logistics professionals Primary data gathered for 150 countries

9 The survey uses an anonymous, web- based questionnaire asking respondents to evaluate their country of residence and eight countries they are dealing with on several logistics dimensions

10 International LPI – 150 countries - Score (1-5,best) - Qualitative - Based on respondents evaluating 8 countries they deal with

11 The (International) LPI measures SEVEN dimensions of country performance Efficiency of the clearance process Quality of transport and IT infrastructure Ease of arranging competitively priced shipments Logistics competence and quality of logistics services Tracking and tracing Domestic logistics costs Timeliness

12 DOMESTIC LPI - 100 countries 1) Performance – Quantitative 2) Environment & Institutions- Qualitative

13 PERFORMANCE DATA FOR INDONESIA Rate of physical inspection (%) _0.12 Customs clearance (days) 1.58 Lead time export, median case (days) 2.54 Lead time import, best case (days) 1.91 Lead time import, median case (days) 3.88 Number of border agencies exports 2.73 Number of border agencies imports 2.73 Possibility of a review procedure (%) 0.38 Typical charge for a 40-foot export container or a semi- trailer (US$) 266.00 Typical charge for a 40-foot import container or a semi- trailer (US$) 244.44

14 ENVIRONMENT & INSTITUTIONS 5 choices from very high to very low Reported as share that chose Very high/high 1) logistic operational environment 2) quality of infrastructure 3) efficiency and effectiveness of processes 4) level of competence of professions 5) 3 Year evolution of business env, customs 6) Incidence of informal payments, crime

15 LPI RankingLPI Ranking presents performance scores of all countries on the LPI index, as well as on the seven key dimensions, in a sortable format

16 CountryLPI Rank South Africa24 Malaysia27 Chile32 Turkey34 Hungary35 Czech Republic38 Poland40 Latvia42 Argentina45 Estonia47 TOP 10 COUNTRIES LOWER MIDDLE INCOME CountryLPI Rank China30 Thailand31 Indonesia43 Jordan52 Bulgaria55 Peru59 Tunisia60 Brazil61 Philippines65 El Salvador66 TOP 10 COUNTRIES LOW INCOME CountryLPI Rank India39 Vietnam53 Sao Tome and Principe57 Guinea62 Sudan64 Mauritania67 Pakistan68 Kenya76 Gambia, The77 Cambodia81 TOP 10 COUNTRIES UPPER MIDDLE INCOME LPI Ranks

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18 Logistics gap across income groups

19 Global Perspective –Domestic LPI Customs clearance (days) Rate of physical inspection Time export (days) Time import (days) East Asia & Pacific2.118%2.55.7 Europe & Central Asia1.28%1.74.5 Latin America & Caribbean214%2.75.7 Middle East & North Africa2.214%2.17.2 South Asia227%4.47.2 Sub-Saharan Africa3.329%4.813.3 High income: OECD0.93%1.84.6

20 Key messages Trade logistics performance is only as good as the weakest link Predictability and reliability are as important as cost and speed The LPI can assess your countrys bottlenecks and opportunities for reform – and where, if necessary, to direct aid for trade The LPI can mobilize broad constituencies for reform

21 Key Policy Implications POLICY IMPLICATIONS Expand the traditional reform agenda beyond customs reform and infrastructure development Improve the quality of logistics services and increase border agency coordination Embark on comprehensive reformprocesses, services, and infrastructurewith broad public and private support LPI as an preliminary indicator – Pursue Trade and Transport Facilitation Audits (TTFA) Develop National Logistics Strategies

22 LPI 2009 - LAUNCHED May 12, 2009 Improvement in survey design More explicit description of time to export/import New module on customs Domestic Logistics costs replaced with Implementation of Cargo Security Requirements Results out end June /early July 2009

23 Trade Facilitation Indicator: DOING BUSINESS (DB) DB 2010 : Out Sept 2009

24 Doing Business: Quantitative measure of regulations for Starting a business Starting a business Dealing with construction permits Dealing with construction permits Employing workers Employing workers Registering property Registering property Getting credit Getting credit Protecting investors Protecting investors Paying taxes Paying taxes Trading across borders Trading across borders Enforcing contracts Enforcing contracts Closing a business Closing a business Source: World Bank Doing Business

25 Top 30 on the Ease of Doing Business - 2009 1. Singapore 16. Saudi Arabia 2. New Zealand 17. Sweden 3. United States 18. Bahrain 4. Hong Kong, China 19. Belgium 5. Denmark 20. Malaysia 6. United Kingdom 21. Switzerland 7. Ireland 22. Estonia 8. Canada 23. Korea 9. Australia 24. Mauritius 10. Norway 25. Germany 11. Iceland 26. Netherlands 12. Japan 27. Austria 13. Thailand 28. Lithuania 14. Finland 29. Latvia 15. Georgia 30. Israel Source: World Bank Doing Business

26 Top Reformers in 2007/2008 Source: World Bank Doing Business

27 Top reformers by indicator

28 Source: World Bank Doing Business Highlights of Doing Business 2009 239 reforms in 113 countries. Highest recorded in 6 years of Doing Business 239 reforms in 113 countries. Highest recorded in 6 years of Doing Business Eastern Europe and Central Asia – 62 reforms in 23 of the 25 countries, 25% of the total recorded worldwide. Fastest reforming region. –4 of top 10 reformers from Eastern Europe and Central Asia Africa – 28 of 46 countries completing 58 reforms, highest rate of reform recorded in the region. –3 of top 10 reformers from Africa 1000 reforms recorded over past 6 reports, 174 informed by Doing Business

29 Source: World Bank Doing Business Most popular reforms in 2007/2008

30 Doing Business Subcategory TRADING ACROSS BORDERS

31 Doing Business -Trading Across Borders (rank 1 – 181, worst) Based on: 1) Number of documents for import/export 2) Time (in days) for import/export 3) Cost (US $ per container) to import/export A higher rank is associated with a more favorable environment for trading across borders. A higher rank is associated with a more favorable environment for trading across borders. Source: World Bank Doing Business Source: World Bank Doing Business

32 Source: World Bank Doing Business Documents required to export and import Bank documents Customs clearance documents Port and terminal handling documents Transport documents Time required to export and import Obtaining all the documents Inland transport Customs clearance and inspections Port and terminal handling Does not include ocean transport time Cost required to export and import (US $ per container) Obtaining all the documents Inland transport Customs clearance and inspections Port and terminal handling Official costs only, no bribes or tariffs

33 DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 countries (rank) Country2008 Singapore Singapore1 Hong Kong, China Hong Kong, China2 Denmark Denmark3 Finland Finland4 Estonia Estonia5 Sweden Sweden6 Norway Norway7 Panama Panama8 Israel Israel9 Thailand Thailand10 Source: WTI 2008

34 DB – Trading Across Borders: Bottom 10 countries (rank) Source: WTI 2008 Country2008 Zimbabwe Zimbabwe162 Eritrea Eritrea163 Venezuela, RB Venezuela, RB164 Lao PDR Lao PDR165 Mali Mali166 Malawi Malawi167 Rwanda Rwanda168 Niger Niger169 Burundi Burundi170 Uzbekistan Uzbekistan171

35 DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 Improvements Source: WTI 2008 Country20082007 Senegal Senegal60139 Thailand Thailand1051 Djibouti Djibouti3571 Kiribati Kiribati69102 Cambodia Cambodia122144 Iceland Iceland3453 Madagascar Madagascar109127 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia1633 Colombia Colombia96112 Syrian Arab Republic Syrian Arab Republic111127

36 DB – Trading Across Borders: Top 10 Slippages Source: WTI 2008 Country20082007 India India9081 Lesotho Lesotho141132 Mexico Mexico8778 Jordan Jordan7464 Moldova Moldova135125 Oman Oman119109 South Africa South Africa147137 Tunisia Tunisia3828 Ukraine Ukraine131121 Australia Australia4534

37 Speeding trade – improving reforms across regions Source: World Bank Doing Business

38 Region or Economy Documents for export (number) Time for export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) East Asia & Pacific 6.723.3902.3 Eastern Europe & Central Asia 7.129.71,649.10 Latin America & Caribbean 6.919.71,229.80 Middle East & North Africa 6.523.31,024.40 OECD4.510.71,069.10 South Asia8.5331,339.10 Sub-Saharan Africa 7.834.71,878.80 Source: World Bank Doing Business

39 Complementarities LPI/DB LPIDB Source of data As many respondents as possible Few by country ConceptPerformance outcomes Analytic breakdown in component procedures QuestionnaireShort onlineDetailed Significance Several indices of performance Metric of red tape applicable to trade operations (time export, import Comparisons and overlaps Limited correlation (at least with stringent tests: rank, partial) of main indicators (LPI and DB time X/M) Different concepts of time to import and export, with huge discrepancies

40 Source: WTI 2008 Scatter plot of LPI AND DB (rank)- 2006

41 Other Trade Facilitation Indicators: UNCTAD Liner Shipping Connectivity Index UNCTAD Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (0-100, best) Computed average index which combines the available information about a countrys maritime transport. For comparison purpose, maximum value of the LSCI is set to 100. Calculated as the un-weighted average of five components: ships, TEUs, companies, services, and maximum vessel size. Each one of the five components is indexed to assume a maximum value of 100 in 2004. Average of the five indexed components is again indexed so that its maximum value for 2004 is 100. Source: UNCTAD Transport Newsletter

42 UNCTAD Liner Connectivity Index Top 10 countries (highest indexes) Source: WTI 2008 Country2008 China 137.4 Hong Kong, China 108.8 Singapore 94.47 Germany 89.27 Netherlands 87.57 United States 82.45 United Kingdom 77.99 Belgium 77.98 Malaysia 77.6 Korea, Rep. 76.4

43 Source: US International Trade Commission Total Freight Cost to US Total Freight Cost to US (% of import value) Ratio of total freight charges and insurance costs to the net value of merchandise goods imports. Ratio of total freight charges and insurance costs to the net value of merchandise goods imports. Calculated at the origin of US ports and is reported as a percentage of import value. Includes all shipment through air, maritime and land freights but excludes domestic transportation costs between cities.

44 Total Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Top 10 countries - Lowest Frequent Charges Source: WTI 2008 Country2006 Singapore 4.19 Netherlands 4.18 Germany 4.1 Sweden 4.08 Austria 4.06 Japan 4.02 Switzerland 4.02 Hong Kong, China 4 United Kingdom 3.99 Canada 3.92

45 Total Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Bottom 10 countries – Highest Frequent Charges Source: WTI 2008 Country2006 Guyana 2.05 Chad 1.98 Niger 1.97 Sierra Leone 1.95 Djibouti 1.94 Tajikistan 1.93 Myanmar 1.86 Rwanda 1.77 Timor-Leste 1.71 Afghanistan 1.21

46 Source: US Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau. Us Imports of Merchandise Air Freight Cost to US (% of import value) Air Freight Cost to US (% of import value) Ratio of total air freight charges and insurance costs to the net value of merchandise goods imports. Calculated at the origin of US gateways, and is reported as a percentage of import value. Average Air Freight Rate reflects the costs of transport from the US main ports to the foreign coutnries at the US customs procedure.

47 Air Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Top 10 countries - Lowest Frequent Charges Source: WTI 2008 Country2007 Angola 0.107 Botswana 0.111 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.123 Cuba 0.272 Ireland 0.301 Central African Republic 0.388 Djibouti 0.454 Qatar 0.469 Bhutan 0.487 Niger 0.491

48 Air Freight Costs to US ($ of import value) Bottom 10 countries - Highest Frequent Charges Source: WTI 2008 Country2007 Burundi27.41 Marshall Islands 43.03 Samoa 47.06 Faeroe Islands 57.35 Solomon Islands 60.94 Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 62.49 Tonga 69.53 Fiji 72.47 Maldives 92.14 Palau 143.8

49 Source:DHL Published Tariff Guide on Domestic and Internaitonal Shipping Services Air Freight Cost from US (US$) Reflects the DHL international United States outbound worldwide priority express rate for a 1 pound rate packages in current US dollars. Additional service charges, shipment value protection, and other surcharges are excluded.

50 Air Freight Costs from US (US $) Top countries – Lowest costs Source: WTI 2008 Country2008 Canada 44.55 Mexico 47.35 Hong Kong, China 53.7 Singapore 53.7 Taiwan, China 53.7 Japan 54.75 Belgium 55.15 France 55.15

51 Air Freight Costs from US (US $) Bottom 10 countries – Highest costs Source: WTI 2008 Country2008 Somalia 115 South Africa 115 Sudan 115 Swaziland 115 Tanzania 115 Togo 115 Tunisia 115 Uganda 115 Zambia 115 Zimbabwe 115

52 Pump Price of Diesel Fuel Pump Price of Diesel Fuel (US $ per Liter) Reflects the prices at the pump for the most widely sold diesel fuel within the country. Prices have been converted from the local currency to US dollars. Source: International Fuel prices 2005 or World Bank WDI database

53 UNCTAD Liner Connectivity Index Top 10 countries (lowest prices) Source: WTI 2008 Country2006 Turkmenistan 0.02 Venezuela, RB 0.03 Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.09 Libya 0.13 Saudi Arabia 0.16 Kuwait 0.22 Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.3 Yemen, Rep. 0.3 Oman 0.31 Algeria 0.32

54 Electricity Cost for Industry Electricity Cost for Industry (US $ per kilowatt hour) Based on the information posted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy on the industry electricity prices per kilowatt-hour from 1997 to 2005 (in US Dollars). The per kilowatt-hour prices are based on the energy end-use prices including taxes, and are converted into US Dollars using the average exchange rate for the given years. Source: International Energy Agency for all years, and the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy for some additional countries in 2004.

55 Electricity Cost for Industry (US $ per kilowatt hour) Top 10 countries (Lowest cost) Source: WTI 2008 Country2007 Kazakhstan 0.03 Russian Federation 0.04 Norway0.05 France 0.06 Taiwan, China0.06 United States 0.06 New Zealand0.07 Korea, Rep. 0.07 Finland0.08 Poland 0.08

56 Telephones (fixed and mobile) per 100 inhabitants (%) Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database Total number of fixed telephone mainlines connecting a subscriber to the telephone exchange equipment and cellular mobile phone subscribers to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, measured per 1000 people. Total number of fixed telephone mainlines connecting a subscriber to the telephone exchange equipment and cellular mobile phone subscribers to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, measured per 1000 people.

57 Telephones (fixed and mobile) per 100 inhabitants (%) - Top 10 countries (highest numbers) Source: WTI 2008 Country2007 Hong Kong, China 208 United Arab Emirates 206 Macao, China 203 Estonia 185 Germany 183 Qatar 180 Luxembourg 178 Switzerland 174 United Kingdom 173 Iceland 172

58 Average Cost of a 3 Minute Call to US (US$) Average Cost of a 3 Minute Call to US (US$) Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database Average cost of a peak rate 3-minute with the fixed line call from the country to the United States, in current US Dollars. Average cost of a peak rate 3-minute with the fixed line call from the country to the United States, in current US Dollars.

59 Average Cost of a 3 Minute Call to US (US$) Top 10 countries (Lowest cost) Source: WTI 2008 Country2005 Switzerland 0.32 Afghanistan 0.39 Mexico 0.83 Suriname 1.33 Poland 1.35 Lithuania 1.55 Mauritius 1.59 Japan 1.63 Morocco 1.69 Gabon 2.77

60 Personal Computers per 100 inhabitants (%) Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database Number of self-contained computers designed for individuals users, measured per 1000 people. Number of self-contained computers designed for individuals users, measured per 1000 people.

61 Personal Computers per 100 inhabitants (%) – Top 10 countries (Highest numbers) Source: WTI 2008 Country2006 Canada 94.3 Netherlands 91.2 Switzerland 88.6 Sweden 88.1 San Marino 85.5 United States 80.3 United Kingdom 80.2 Denmark 72.9 Singapore 72.3 Luxembourg 68

62 Internet Users per 100 inhabitants (%) Source: World Bank WDI database or International Communication Union (ITU) database Number of people with access to the worldwide network through a dial-up, leased, or broadband connection, measured per 1000 people. Number of people with access to the worldwide network through a dial-up, leased, or broadband connection, measured per 1000 people.

63 Internet Users per 100 inhabitants (%) – Top 10 countries (highest numbers) Source: WTI 2008 Country2007 Barbados 95.3 Greenland 91.6 Netherlands 91.6 Andorra 87.6 Canada 84.9 Norway 80.7 New Zealand 79.5 Sweden 76.5 Bermuda 75 Japan 73.6

64 Secondary School Enrollment (%, gross) Source:World Bank WDI database Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level fo education shown. Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level fo education shown.

65 Secondary School Enrollment (%, gross) – Top 10 countries (Highest ratios) Source: WTI 2008 Country2006 Australia 150 New Zealand 120 Denmark 120 Spain 119 Netherlands 118 France 114 Norway 113 Finland 112 Ireland 112 Iceland 110

66 Tertiary School Enrollment (%, gross) Source:World Bank WDI database Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level fo education shown. Ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level fo education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.

67 Tertiary School Enrollment (%, gross) – Top 10 countries (Highest ratios) Source: WTI 2008 Country2006 Greece 94.9 Finland 93.2 Korea, Rep. 91 Cuba 87.9 Slovenia 83 United States 81.8 Denmark 79.9 New Zealand 79.7 Sweden 79 Norway 77.5


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