Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byMelissa Waddell Modified over 3 years ago

1
Signals and Systems Fall 2003 Lecture #13 21 October 2003 1. The Concept and Representation of Periodic Sampling of a CT Signal 2. Analysis of Sampling in the Frequency Domain 3. The Sampling Theorem the Nyquist Rate 4. In the Time Domain: Interpolation 5. Undersampling and Aliasing

2
SAMPLING We live in a continuous-time world: most of the signals we encounter are CT signals, e.g. x(t). How do we convert them into DT signals x[n]? Sampling, taking snap shots of x(t) every T seconds. T –sampling period x[n] x(nT), n=..., -1, 0, 1, 2,... regularly spaced samples Applications and Examples Digital Processing of Signals Strobe Images in Newspapers Sampling Oscilloscope … How do we perform sampling?

3
Why/When Would a Set of Samples Be Adequate? Observation: Lots of signals have the same samples By sampling we throw out lots of information –all values of x(t) between sampling points are lost. Key Question for Sampling: Under what conditions can we reconstructthe original CT signal x(t) from its samples?

4
Impulse SamplingMultiplying x(t) by the sampling function

5
Analysis of Sampling in the Frequency Domain Multiplication Property => =Sampling Frequency Important to note:

6
Illustration of sampling in the frequency-domain for a band-limited (X(jω)=0 for |ω| > ω M ) signal

7
Reconstruction of x(t) from sampled signals If there is no overlap between shifted spectra, a LPF can reproduce x(t) from xp(t)

8
Suppose x(t) is bandlimited, so that X(jω)=0 for |ω| > ω M Then x(t) is uniquely determined by its samples {x(nT)} if where ω s = 2π/T ω s > 2ω M = The Nyquist rate

9
Observations on Sampling (1) In practice, we obviously dont sample with impulses or implement ideal lowpass filters. One practical example:The Zero-Order Hold

10
Observations (Continued) (2) Sampling is fundamentally a time varyingoperation, since we multiply x(t) with a time-varying function p(t). However, is the identity system (which is TI) for bandlimited x(t) satisfying the sampling theorem (ω s > 2ω M ). (3) What if ω s <= 2ω M ? Something different: more later.

11
Time-Domain Interpretation of Reconstruction of Sampled SignalsBand-Limited Interpolation The lowpass filter interpolates the samples assuming x(t) containsno energy at frequencies >= ω c

12
Graphic Illustration of Time-Domain Interpolation Original CT signal After Sampling After passing the LPF

13
Interpolation Methods Bandlimited Interpolation Zero-Order Hold First-Order Hold Linear interpolation

14
Undersampling and Aliasing When ω s 2ω M => Undersampling

15
Undersampling and Aliasing (continued) X r (jω)X(jω) Distortion because of aliasing Higher frequencies of x(t) are folded back and take on the aliases of lower frequencies Note that at the sample times, x r (nT) = x(nT)

16
A Simple Example X(t) = cos(w o t + Φ) Picturewould be Modified… Demo: Sampling and reconstruction of cosw o t

Similar presentations

OK

– 1 – Data ConvertersDiscrete-Time Signal ProcessingProfessor Y. Chiu EECT 7327Fall 2014 Discrete-Time Signal Processing (A Review)

– 1 – Data ConvertersDiscrete-Time Signal ProcessingProfessor Y. Chiu EECT 7327Fall 2014 Discrete-Time Signal Processing (A Review)

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on 21st century skills rubric Ppt on environmental pollution in india Ppt on first generation entrepreneurs Ppt on c programming functions Ppt on global warming in india free download Ppt on hydro power plant for class 10 Ppt on council of ministers cambodia Ppt on simple carburetor Mp ppt online registration 2014 Ppt on soft skills for teachers