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Organizational Processes for TPP Skill Module – Group Problem Solving © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
Group Problem-Solving © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes Principles »Dont jump to solutions before defining the problem »Solve problems close to the source »Attend to the interests of all stakeholders »Team-based knowledge driving systems change Skills »Brainstorming »Facilitation and mediation »Process improvement
Brainstorming Principles Brainstorming Principles © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes Definition: »A process for generating new ideas by drawing on collective wisdom and synergy in a group Options for priortizing a brainstormed list: »Highlight seemingly obvious top choices and check with group »Use self-adhesive dots to generate a preliminary rank ordering »Use decision support technologies Clarity what will be done with the priorities before using any of the above methods
Brainstorming Guidelines Identify a recorder and facilitator (can be the same person) Clarify the issue or question If appropriate, first generate ideas individually on paper Begin recording ideas from the groupsequentially or otherwise Encourage piggybacking and wild or crazyideas Discourage criticism or judgmental comments Push past the pause Cluster before you prioritize © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
Brainstorming Exercise Form industry sub-groups Select a recorder Use a flip chart and marker – or flip chart pages taped to the wall Have each group brainstorm two lists – each with a different recorder : One list of negative organizational implications of the selected policy issue in this TPP class A second list of the positive implications Use dots to prioritize the lists Be prepared to discuss what you notice about the process © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
Facilitation and Mediation The irony of third party mediation and facilitation roles Improved outcomes no credit for the mediator Many models Internal, external, self-managed, others How facilitators and mediators help narrow issues Beginnind a sequence of small agreements (can we at least agree…) Summarizing agreements to date Shuttle diplomacy © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
Group Problem-Solving Model A four-step, interest-based problem-solving model: 1)What is the problem/issue? 2)What interests are involved/what are the root causes? 3)What are our options? 4)On what combination of options can we agree? For complex or complicated problems, each step can be expanded For problems at a system level involving an entire work process, consider a process improvement model © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
A Process Improvement Model Aim (The aim of the process- How are things supposed to happen?) Reality (How do things actually happen?) Root Causes (What would account for any gaps between the aim and reality?) Improvement Options (What are options that might help close the gap?) Value-added Implementation (Of the many options, which ones will add value? How would they be implemented?) Evaluation and Continuous Improvement (What are the criteria for success? What is the evaluation plan? What mechanisms will help ensure continuous improvement?) © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes Source: Valuable Disconnects by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Kevin Ford (Oxford University Press, Forthcoming )
Utilizing the ARRIVE Model (minimum times listed) Aim »Brainstorm potential elements of the aim the process.(10-15 min.) »Agree on the primary element of elements as your definition of the aim. (10-15 min.) Reality »Brainstorm elements of reality. Include perceptions, numerical data, a process map and other indicators that provide evidence of what actually happens. (20-30 min.) Root Causes »Asses the relationship between the Aim and Reality. Note places where there is close alignment and places where there are notable gaps. Seek root causes – not just symptoms. (15-30 min.) © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
Utilizing the ARRIVE Model (cont.) (minimum times listed) Improvement Options »Brainstorm potential options that might help close some of the gaps identified – Be sure you are not just treating symptoms, but addressing root causes (15-30 min.) Value – added Implementation »Assess which of the many options will add value (5 – 10 min.) »Construct a plan for Implementation – with tentative milestones and resource requirements (15-30 min.) Evaluation and Continuous Improvement »Brainstorm and Agree on potential criteria for success (15-30 min.) »Construct an evaluation plan (15 – 30 min.) »Brainstorm mechanisms to ensure continuous improvement (15-30 min.) © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
Problem-Solving/ Process Improvement Exercise Work in small group – with half the class focusing on the problem solving model and half focusing on the process improvement model In each case, discuss the supporting social infrastructure that would be needed if a wide variety of groups in an organization were utilizing this model to support improvement activities Be prepared to report on your analysis and discuss the organizational implications © Materials Developed by Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Thomas Kochan (MIT) for use in ESD.140 Organizational Processes
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