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Channels: The Design and Management of Supply and Distribution Channels.

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1 Channels: The Design and Management of Supply and Distribution Channels

2 Starbucks vs. McDonalds Starbucks stores are company owned McDonalds stores are often franchised Both chains worry about consistency Both chains worry about each stores performance Why the difference?

3 Chevron Researchers are difficult to monitor: – Hard to monitor how hard someone is thinking – Ideas do not affect demand for a long time – Impact depends upon other factors. How can Chevron motivate its employees to work hard?

4 May Company 1 May Co. is one of the largest department store conglomerates in the country with annual sales exceeding $10 billion. Different departments use different language to describe products, sales, profit margins, and prices How can corporate managers work out what is going on?

5 May Company 2 Almost all of the clothing May Company sells is manufactured in low wage Asian countries. Some of these clothes are sourced by May Company itself and others are purchased from US intermediaries. The clothes purchased from intermediaries tend to be more fashionable - varying more from year to year. Why does May Company not source more fashionable clothing itself?

6 Continental Airlines If Continental outsources its airport operations to another airline it must share information about reservations and plane operations –The information is proprietary –Continentals information systems uses different hardware –Agents have to be trained to use Continentals information systems Does Continental outsource its airport operations?

7 SAP SAP designs software that lets all of a companys departments share the same information system. The benefit: it is easier to share information between departments. Why dont all firms adopt this type of standardized software?

8 State Farm Insurance brokers collect information from clients and provide it to State Farm This is a task that that the web is almost ideally suited to perform Why has State Farm been slow to market its products over the Internet? Which insurance companies are more likely to use the Internet?

9 Burger King 1 If Burger King makes local advertising decisions itself it can ensure that the advertising occurs. – Franchisees may be reluctant to advertise: they pay all of the costs and only get a share of the benefits However the franchisees are better placed to evaluate whether local advertising is needed. What is the solution?

10 Burger King 2 At Burger King customers form 1 line; one employee takes the order another employee gets the food. At McDonalds customers line up behind different registers and the same employee takes the order and gets the food. McDonalds process is faster and customers like it more. Why doesnt Burger King change?

11 Sloan At Sloan the marketing faculty are all located in E56 across the car park from the rest of the school At Chicago the marketing facultys offices are spread throughout the school Is this difference important?

12 1980 Acquisition of Houston Oil and Minerals Corp. by Tenneco Houston Oil was a very successful oil exploration company. Houstons success was largely due to its bonus-driven, aggressive, entrepreneurial work force. Tenneco at the time was the largest US conglomerate which included oil distribution activities. Why did the acquisition fail?

13 Reebok vs. Nike The companies compete for the same customers Nike: –No product is made by a single supplier –No single supplier represents a large proportion of its business –Regularly changes suppliers Reebok: –50% of its products are made by a single supplier

14 Reebok vs. Nike Advantages of a single supplier –they are more willing to invest in resources –enjoy benefits of economies of scale –fewer decision makers/inputs –more repeated interactions Disadvantages of a single supplier –exclusivity gives market power (are incentives aligned) –risk not diversified: technical failures, disputes

15 Coordination and Incentive Issues Coordination Issues –The optimal performance of one task may depend upon the performance of other tasks –Coordination problems arise within and between firms Incentive Issues –Firms and employees may have different goals –Incentive issues arise within and between firms

16 Coordination: When is it difficult? Too many inputs (American Airlines) Decision makers too far from information (centralized decision making) Too many decision makers (decentralized decision making) Specialization: –different languages (May Co.) –different information systems (Continental) Incentive problems (Continental)

17 How Does Outsourcing Affect Coordination? Coordination is difficult at large firms –Decision makers too far apart (decentralized) –Decision makers too far from information (centralized) –Hard to measure the impact of actions (Chevron) Coordination is difficult between firms –Procurement: need to negotiate price and terms (Knez and Simester) –More decision makers (Burger King) –Incentive issues: proprietary information (Continental) –Harder to implement standardization (Continental) –Harder to implement other coordination mechanisms (co-location)

18 Incentives: When do problems arise? Goals not congruent –Within firms: vacations –Between firms: wholesale price Implications: –Adverse Selection: distort information –Moral Hazard: distort actions and decisions Note relationship between incentive and coordination issues

19 How Does Outsourcing Affect Incentives? Owners not employees at the division level –Helps if goals are consistent: manage employees –Hinders if goals are inconsistent: Burger King ordering process

20 Aligning Incentives Using Contracts Enforcing contracts: – Input measures (accountants) – Output measures (sales people) Complexities: – Multiple tasks – Group performance – Uncertainty

21 Intermediate Solutions Outsourcing is not the only option Vertically integrated Chicago Tribune Franchising Pizza Hut Licensing Tiger Woods Cooperatives Ace Hardware Joint Venture PowerPC Strategic Alliances Coke and McDonalds Outsourced Nike Different channels for different segments May create coordination and incentive problems (State Farm)

22 Bose: JIT Program Coordination Standardize (information systems) Co-location Not negotiating prices and terms Incentives Owners watch over suppliers employees (good) Give suppliers market power (bad)

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