Presentation on theme: "Prototyping Teaching materials to accompany: Product Design and Development Chapter 12 Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D.Eppinger 2nd Edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill,"— Presentation transcript:
1 PrototypingTeaching materials to accompany: Product Design and Development Chapter 12 Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D.Eppinger 2nd Edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000.
2 Product Design and Development Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D Product Design and Development Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D.Eppinger 2nd edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000.Chapter Table of Contents1. Introduction2. Development Processes and Organizations3. Product Planning4. Identifying Customer Needs5. Product Specifications6. Concept Generation7. Concept Selection8. Concept Testing9. Product Architecture10. Industrial Design11. Design for Manufacturing12. Prototyping13. Product Development Economics14. Managing Projects
5 Prototyping Example: Apple PowerBook Duo Trackball
6 Four Uses of Prototypes • Learning– answering questions about performance or feasibility– e.g., proof-of-concept model• Communication– demonstration of product for feedback– e.g., 3D physical models of style or function• Integration– combination of sub-systems into system model– e.g., alpha or beta test models• Milestones– goal for development team’s schedule– e.g., first testable hardware
8 Physical vs. Analytical Prototypes Physical Prototypes• Tangible approximation ofthe product.• May exhibit unmodeledbehavior.• Some behavior may be anartifact of the approximation.• Often best forcommunication.Analytical Prototypes• Mathematical model of the product.• Can only exhibit behavior arisingfrom explicitly modeledphenomena. (However, behavioris not always anticipated.• Some behavior may be an artifactof the analytical method.• Often allow more experimentalfreedom than physical models.
9 Focused vs. Comprehensive Prototypes Focused Prototypes• Implement one or a fewattributes of the product.• Answer specificquestions about theproduct design.• Generally several arerequired.Comprehensive Prototypes• Implement many or allattributes of the product.• Offer opportunities forrigorous testing.• Often best for milestonesand integration.
10 Boeing 777 Testing Brakes Test • Minimum rotor thickness • Maximum takeoff weight• Maximum runway speed• Will the brakes ignite?Wing Test• Maximum loading• When will it break?• Where will it break?
12 Prototyping Strategy • Use prototypes to reduce uncertainty. • Make models with a defined purpose.• Consider multiple forms of prototypes.• Choose the timing of prototype cycles.– Many early models are used to validateconcepts.– Relatively few comprehensive models arenecessary to test integration.• Plan time to learn from prototype cycles.– Avoid the “hardware swamp”.
13 Rapid Prototyping Methods • Most of these methods are additive, ratherthan subtractive, processes.• Build parts in layers based on CAD model.• SLA=Stereolithogrpahy Apparatus• SLS=Selective Laser Sintering• 3D Printing• LOM=Laminated Object Manufacturing• Others every year..
14 Virtual Prototyping – Fit and assembly – Manufacturability • 3D CAD models enable many kinds ofanalysis:– Fit and assembly– Manufacturability– Form and style– Kinematics– Finite element analysis (stress, thermal)– Crash testing– more every year...