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Lecture #7 Eleanor Westney

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1 15.220 Lecture #7 Eleanor Westney
Developing Firm-Specific Competitive Advantage: The Globalization of Markets Lecture #7 Eleanor Westney

2 Hart-Milstein Typology of Markets
Consumer Economy Emerging Economy Survival Economy Strategies: Identify a market segment within each type of economy that has the same needs and wants; OR Segment markets in each type of economy OR Exploit the differences across the economies to build competitive advantage that is relevant, appropriable, and transferrable across the three categories

3 Key Indicators of Globalization in an Industry
Market: in each market, rising sales of products that are not produced locally growing similarity of customer needs and tastes, either in general or in particular segments growing importance of multinational customers

4 Key Indicators of Globalization in an Industry (cont’d)
Value Chain: increasing pressures for lower costs and greater efficiency/scale economies falling impediments to cross-border trade (government regulation, costs of transport, etc.) growing standardization of components/inputs (e.g. quality standards) increasing similarity of structures and processes of distribution and marketing

5 Key Indicators of Globalization in an Industry (cont’d)
Technology: rising costs of technology development growing diversity in location of “hot spots” – centers of excellence in technology development

6 Key Indicators of Globalization in an Industry (cont’d)
Competition/Complementers: industry dominated by same set of competitors in every major market same companies providing complementary assets in every major location

7 What’s Different about Emerging Economy Markets?
Timing of entry: first-mover advantages Market assessment: grow with the market Product policy/positioning Partner policy

8 Roles in the Transnational Model
Black Hole Strategic Leader Strategic Importance of the Environment Implementer Contributor L L H Level of capabilities in local unit Diagram: Bartlett, Christopher, and Sumantra Ghoshal. Chapter 7 in Gupta and Westney. "Smart Globalization: Designing Global Strategies, Creating Global Networks."

9 Global/Local Roles Need for cross-border integration, coordination
Basic Research Need for cross-border integration, coordination Product Development Rroduction Marketing Sales & service Need for local responsiveness

10 Global/Local Roles Need for cross-border integration, coordination
Core component production Basic Research Locally sourced components Assembly Need for cross-border integration, coordination Product Development Production Marketing Product Policy Advertising Sales & service Pricing Distribution Promotions Need for local responsiveness

11 Acer’s Sales Distribution by Geography 2001
EMEA Greater China Americas Asia-Pacific

12 Acer Organization Design
Does not rely on ownership JVs in key components, TI/Acer DRAMs Distribution companies are free-standing, ACER has local partners in JV structure No corporate HQ charges Arms length pricing Local autonomy re product mix, sourcing Control through brand name, key components, $$$

13 Acer Aspire: Concluding Observations
Acer tried to build separate organization for marketing/local responsiveness (RBUs) and for production/efficiency (SBUs), and have knowledge networks follow a “pull system” on an “as needed” basis (like its production system) Problems: RBUs knew the market but didn’t know how to access needed knowledge in SBUs, didn’t have power to get it once they knew what they needed Case illustrates the difficulty of building cross-border networks and need for time and resources to build them

14 Positioning for Emerging Market Companies
Dodger Contender Defender Extender High Forces for Globalisation of Industry Low Business model leverageable in other markets Location- Bound Competitive Advantage

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