Presentation on theme: "Decisions, decisions Critical thinking tools. Force Field Analysis The present situation has two sets of forces affecting it: those pushing towards change."— Presentation transcript:
Decisions, decisions Critical thinking tools
Force Field Analysis The present situation has two sets of forces affecting it: those pushing towards change (driving forces) and those opposed to change (restraining forces). In other words, helps and hinders. Driving ForcesCurrent State Restraining forces Future
Force Field Analysis To enable a career move or decision, you need to move the centre line upwards. This can be done by: 1.Strengthening or adding to the helping forces 2.Reducing or removing the hindering forces 3.A combination of both This means assessing both the things that are working in your favour and the things that may restrict your options, and deciding whether your career plan is realistic. If so, then seeing how you can optimise your position and minimise or accommodate the challenges.
Mind Maps Popularised by Tony Buzan, Mind Maps abandon the list format of conventional note taking. They do this in favour of a two-dimensional structure. A good Mind Map shows the 'shape' of the subject, the relative importance of individual points, and the way in which facts relate to one another.
Example of a Mind Map
Why use? Mind Maps are more compact than conventional notes. Helps you to make associations easily. If you find out more information after you have drawn the main Mind Map, then you can easily integrate it with little disruption.
What are they used for? Mind Maps are useful for: Summarizing information; Consolidating information from different research sources; Thinking through complex problems; and Presenting information in a format that shows the overall structure of your subject
How to? : 1.Write the title of the subject you're exploring in the centre of the page, and draw a circle around it. 2.As you come across major subdivisions or subheadings of the topic (or important facts that relate to the subject) draw lines out from this circle. Label these lines with these subdivisions or subheadings. 3.As you "burrow" into the subject and uncover another level of information (further subheadings, or individual facts) belonging to the subheadings above, draw these as lines linked to the subheading lines. 4.Finally, for individual facts or ideas, draw lines out from the appropriate heading line and label them
Critical Thinking CoRT Thinking Cognitive Research Trust (DeBono,1972)
CoRT Components PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting) CAF (Consider All Factors) C & S (Consequence and Sequel) APC (Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices). OPV (Other People's Views)
PMI: THE TREATMENT OF IDEAS P = Plus The good things about an idea - why you like it. M = Minus The bad things about an idea - why you don't like it I = Interesting What you find interesting about an idea Instead of just saying that you like an idea, or don't like an idea, you can use a PMI. When you use a PMI you give the good points first, then the bad points and then the points than are neither good nor bad but are interesting. You can use a PMI as a way of treating ideas, suggestions and proposals.
CAF = Consider All Factors When you have to choose or make a decision or just think about something, there are always many factors that you have to consider. If you leave out some of these factors, your choice may seem right at the time but will later turn out to be wrong. When you are looking at other people's thinking, you can try and see what factors they have left out.
C&S = Consequence and Sequel A new invention (e.g. the petrol engine), a plan, a rule or a decision all have consequences that go on for a long time. Consequences should always be considered: Immediate consequences Short-term consequences (1 - 5 years) Medium - term consequences ( year) Long-term consequences (over 25 years)
APC = Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices When you have to make a decision or take action, you may at first think that you do not have all the choices at you disposal. But if you look for them, you may find that there are more alternatives than you thought. Similarly in looking at a situation there are always obvious explanations. But if you look for them, you may find that there are possible explanations that you had not thought of.
OPV = Other People's Views. Other people may have a very different viewpoint. Although they are in the same situation, they may look at things very differently.
Six Hat Thinking Edward De Bono and Six Hat Thinking
What is Six Hat Thinking? Six Thinking Hats is a strategy devised by Edward de Bono which requires students (and teachers), to extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different thinking hats: White hat thinking identifies the facts and details of a topic Black hat thinking examines the negative aspects of a topic Yellow hat thinking focuses on the positive aspects of a topic Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings Green hat thinking requires imagination and lateral thinking about a topic Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is required), and the need to understand the big picture
The Red Hat The spectrum of feelings included under the Red hat range from emotions to intuitions. No need to justify the feelings. How do I feel about this right now? Emotions - normal emotions such as joy, anger, fear and sorrow. Under these powerful emotions, our perceptions only select what supports the emotion. ie. an angry person will see reasons for anger. Feelings - covers a wider range than emotions. Includes feelings of unease, anxiety, interest, and uncertainty. Aesthetics is a feeling. Feelings covers matters like admiration and respect. Hunches - lie somewhere between intuition and feelings. It takes the form of strong feeling or decision in favour of or against something. Intuitions - intuition is both right and wrong. Some claim that intuition is indeed logical but that we are not consciously aware of this process. The value of the Red Hat is that it recognises emotions, feelings, hunches and intuitions as a valid part of thinking, provided they are signalled as what they are.
Attributes of the Red Hat Allows for the legitimizing of emotions & feelings Explores ordinary emotions such as fears, dislikes, suspicions & complex emotions like hunches,intuitions, senses & aesthetics NO need to justify or give reason for feelings or emotions Uses focusing statements... This makes me feel... When I think what all this will involve I feel... When I think of what I will have to do to be able to make this option work...
The White Hat Information. Questions. What information do we have? What are the facts? What information do we need to get?. A good place to start when wearing the white hat is to make note of all the information, formal and informal, that is readily available. What information do we have? The answer will provide an inventory Formal information may include reports, statistics and facts. Informal information tends to come from personal experience. Describing our own feelings is Red Hat thinking, but reporting how others feel is White Hat thinking. White Hat thinking incorporates questions such as, What is relevant? What is most important? How valid is this?
Attributes of the White Hat Allows neutrality Explores facts and figures with NO interpretations or opinions Uses focusing questions How much? How long? Where? Who? Fact or belief? Fact or likelihood?
The Black Hat Judgement. Bad points. What is wrong with this? Is this true? Will it work? What are the weaknesses? What is wrong with it? The words checking and checking out are important in explaining the uses of the Black Hat. It is critical thinking. The main uses of the Black Hat are: Checking for evidence - what is the evidence to support the statement? Checking for logic - the validity of the logical argument. Checking for feasibility - is it realistic, will it work? Checking for impact - the consequences, who does it affect? Checking for fit - in simple terms: do things fit? Checking for weaknesses - is this supportive?
Attributes of the Black Hat Allows logical negative assessment Explores risks, dangers & inconsistencies with past experiences Not an argument Uses focusing questions... What are the problems with this option? What risks are there? What barriers do I face? Who will be affected by my decision What negatives are there? Is it worth doing?
The Yellow Hat Assessing value. Extracting benefits. Making something work. The uses of the Yellow Hat fall into four areas: 1.Good points. 2.Benefits. 3.Reasons why an idea will work 4.Likelihood. Things to look for when wearing the Yellow Hat are: What are the good points? What are the benefits?
Attributes of the Yellow Hat Allows positive constructive assessment Explores the benefits & values, & the dreams & visions Uses focusing questions... What is my dream job? What is my objective in choosing this option? What are my positive assumptions based on? How can I get closer to the vision? Who will benefit from my choice? What are the potential benefits for me?
The Blue Hat Organisation of thinking. Thinking about thinking. What have we done so far? What do we do next? Defining focus and purpose - What are we thinking about? What are we trying to do? Setting out a thinking plan or agenda - setting the thinking steps, a strategy. Making observations or comments - metacognition - thinking about our thinking, commenting on our thought processes. Deciding on the next step - this step may involve moving to another hat. It is stopping thinking and taking a break. Defining outcomes and summarising - What decision have we reached? The overall outcome, solution, conclusion, choice or decision, design, or further plan.
Attributes of the Blue Hat Allows control of the thinking & organises it into action Produces summaries, overviews, conclusions, suggested directions & next step action Uses focusing questions... What is the first step? Where do I go from here? Who do I need to? What do I need to prepare? What documents do I need to produce? What timescales am I working to?
The Green Hat Creativity. Different ideas. New ideas. Suggestions and proposals. What are some possible ways to work this out? What are some alternative ways of approaching this? Generating reactive ideas - use the given idea as a starting point for thinking and exploring creatively. Generating starting ideas - The White Hat collects information - the Green Hat is used to lay out some starting ideas. Generating better and further ideas - look for alternatives, enhance existing ideas. Generating new ideas - create new ideas completely - use originality. Green Hat thinking can help when we need to take an action, provide an explanation, forecast an outcome or consider wider alternatives. Forming hypotheses, speculating, and thinking laterally, are three Green Hat thinking tools.
Attributes of the Green Hat Allows for the creation of new ideas and responsible changes Explores new approaches, routes, options, choices, avenues, structures, resources and methods Uses focusing statements... My chance of success is greater if I… What if? What else could I consider doing? Whats my contingency plan/alternatives? How many different ways can we attack the problem?