# Reading Strategy: Making Inferences Readers need to find the meaning behind the words.

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Reading Strategy: Making Inferences Readers need to find the meaning behind the words.

A Simple Inference If the skies suddenly grow very cloudy and the wind begins to whip around your legs, how do you infer? If the skies suddenly grow very cloudy and the wind begins to whip around your legs, how do you infer? –You have seen this weather pattern before. –You have background knowledge about storms. –You make connections between your background knowledge and the current weather pattern. –Based on these connections, you make a prediction.

Lets Use Background Knowledge Even couples with only mild difficulties in communicating can have important misunderstandings. Marjorie, for example, wanted Ken to invite her to a favorite cocktail lounge overlooking a bay to celebrate their anniversary. She archly asked him, Ken, do you feel like going out for a drink tonight? Ken, who was feeling tired, missed the hidden message contained in her question. He responded, No, Im too tired. Marjorie was extremely disappointed. Only after feeling hurt and sorry for herself did she realize that she had not communicated to Ken her real desire – to celebrate their anniversary. When she later made clear her true wish, he readily agreed to celebrate. Even couples with only mild difficulties in communicating can have important misunderstandings. Marjorie, for example, wanted Ken to invite her to a favorite cocktail lounge overlooking a bay to celebrate their anniversary. She archly asked him, Ken, do you feel like going out for a drink tonight? Ken, who was feeling tired, missed the hidden message contained in her question. He responded, No, Im too tired. Marjorie was extremely disappointed. Only after feeling hurt and sorry for herself did she realize that she had not communicated to Ken her real desire – to celebrate their anniversary. When she later made clear her true wish, he readily agreed to celebrate. Beck, Love is Never Enough

What Can You Infer? Marjorie and Ken are probably married? Marjorie and Ken are probably married? Marjorie and Ken have been married for a long time? Marjorie and Ken have been married for a long time? Ken does not enjoy going out for drinks with his wife? Ken does not enjoy going out for drinks with his wife? If Marjorie had expressed her wish more clearly, Ken would have probably agreed? If Marjorie had expressed her wish more clearly, Ken would have probably agreed? All couples can have communication problems? All couples can have communication problems? Which of the assumptions listed below can be inferred from the text?

You Used Your Background Knowledge Married couples have anniversaries. Married couples have anniversaries. Couples married both a short time and a long time have anniversaries. Couples married both a short time and a long time have anniversaries. Married couples you know have had misunderstandings and hurt feelings. Married couples you know have had misunderstandings and hurt feelings.

You Used Hints in the Text and Asked Yourself Questions Ken readily agreed is a clue. You asked yourself, Does this mean he didnt understand at first? Ken readily agreed is a clue. You asked yourself, Does this mean he didnt understand at first? No, Im too tired, is a clue. You made a connection to this statement and Marjories hurt feelings. No, Im too tired, is a clue. You made a connection to this statement and Marjories hurt feelings. For example is a clue that a story is coming. You could predict that the author was going to give a specific example, or story, to illustrate the point. For example is a clue that a story is coming. You could predict that the author was going to give a specific example, or story, to illustrate the point.

Guiding Questions To Help With Inferences The author gave me a gift in the title. What prediction popped into my head from it? How does it help me? The author gave me a gift in the title. What prediction popped into my head from it? How does it help me? Now that Ive almost finished this passage, can I confirm my predictions? Now that Ive almost finished this passage, can I confirm my predictions? What message do I think the writer wants me to understand? How will this help me remember the reading? What message do I think the writer wants me to understand? How will this help me remember the reading? What words helped me reach my conclusions? What words helped me reach my conclusions? How can I explain my inference to somebody else? How can I explain my inference to somebody else?

Mr. Perfect The minister asked for anyone who knew a truly perfect person to stand up. After a long pause, a meek-looking fellow in the back stood. Do you really know a perfect person? he was asked. Yes, Sir, I do, answered the little man. Would you please tell the congregation who this rare, perfect person is? pursued the preacher. Yes, Sir, my wifes first husband. Bonham, The Treasury of Clean Jokes

What Statements Can be Logically Inferred? 1. The minister is surprised when the man stands up. 2. The minister is doubtful that the man really knows a perfect person. 3. The man believes that his wifes first husband is perfect. 4. The wife believes that her first husband is perfect. 5. The mans wife has been comparing him unfavorably with her first husband.

So, When We Infer, We… Make inferences based on sound reasoning. Make inferences based on sound reasoning. Use background knowledge to make connections and personalize the reading. Use background knowledge to make connections and personalize the reading. Ask internal questions while reading. Ask internal questions while reading. Make predictions and confirm or discard them as we continue reading. Make predictions and confirm or discard them as we continue reading. Try to recognize the authors purpose and message. Try to recognize the authors purpose and message. Make inferences using what is between our ears. Make inferences using what is between our ears.

Writers give clues, but readers have to amass the evidence and draw conclusions for themselves. Zimmerman and Hutchins, 2003, p. 106