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Chapter 18 Land Resources. Overview of Chapter 18 o Land Use World land use World land use US land use US land use o Wilderness Park and Wildlife Refuges.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Land Resources. Overview of Chapter 18 o Land Use World land use World land use US land use US land use o Wilderness Park and Wildlife Refuges."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Land Resources

2 Overview of Chapter 18 o Land Use World land use World land use US land use US land use o Wilderness Park and Wildlife Refuges National Parks National Parks Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Refuge o Forests Forest management Forest management Deforestation Deforestation o Rangeland and Agricultural Land o Wetlands and Coastal Areas o Conservation of Land Resources

3 Land Use- Worldwide

4 Land Use- United States

5 o 55% of US land is privately owned o Remainder of land is owned by government Most federally owned land is in Alaska and 11 western states Most federally owned land is in Alaska and 11 western states

6 Managing Public and Private Land o Public Planning and Land Use Land use decisions are complex and have multiple effects Land use decisions are complex and have multiple effects Must take into account all repercussions of proposed land use Must take into account all repercussions of proposed land use o Management of Federal Land Wide-Use Movement Wide-Use Movement Environmental Movement Environmental Movement

7 Wilderness Parks and Wildlife Refuges o Wilderness A protected area of land in which no human development is permitted A protected area of land in which no human development is permitted o Wilderness Act (1964) Set aside federally owned land as part of National Wilderness Preservation System Set aside federally owned land as part of National Wilderness Preservation System No development permitted (including roads) No development permitted (including roads) o Managed by NPS, USFS, FWS & BLM

8 Wilderness o Some areas have a limited number of permitted human guests to reduce impact o Other problems include invasive species

9 National Park System o Created in 1916 o Currently includes 58 parks o Primary goal Teach people about the natural environment, management of natural resources and history of a site Teach people about the natural environment, management of natural resources and history of a site Yosemite National Park

10 National Park System o Threats to U.S. Parks Crime & Vandalism Crime & Vandalism Traffic jams Traffic jams Pollution of the soil, water and air Pollution of the soil, water and air Originating both inside and outside the park Originating both inside and outside the park Resource violations Resource violations o Natural Regulation Policy to let nature take it course Policy to let nature take it course No culling wildlife No culling wildlife No suppressing wildfire No suppressing wildfire

11 Wildlife Refuges o National Wildlife Refuge System (1903) o Represent all major ecosystems founds in the US o Mission To preserve lands and waters for the conservation of fishes, wildlife and plants of the US To preserve lands and waters for the conservation of fishes, wildlife and plants of the US o Recreation (including hunting and fishing) are permitted Cannot impede conservation efforts Cannot impede conservation efforts

12 Forests o Role in Hydrologic Cycle (right) o Forest Management o Deforestation o Forest Trends in the US o Trends in Tropical Forests o Boreal Forests

13 Forest Management o Traditional Forest Management Low diversity- monocultures (right) Low diversity- monocultures (right) Managed for timber production Managed for timber production o Ecological Sustainable Forest Management Environmentally balanced Environmentally balanced Diverse trees Diverse trees Prevent soil erosion Prevent soil erosion Preserve watersheds Preserve watersheds Wildlife corridors- unlogged Wildlife corridors- unlogged

14 Harvesting Trees

15 Harvesting Trees - Clearcutting

16 Deforestation o Temporary or permanent clearance of large expanses of forest for agriculture or other use o World forests shrank 90 million acres from 2000–2005 o Causes Fire Fire Expansion of agriculture Expansion of agriculture Construction of roads Construction of roads Tree harvest Tree harvest Insect and disease Insect and disease

17 Deforestation o Results Decreased soil fertility Decreased soil fertility Uncontrolled soil erosion Uncontrolled soil erosion Production of hydroelectric power (silt build up behind dams) Production of hydroelectric power (silt build up behind dams) Increased sedimentation of waterways Increased sedimentation of waterways Formation of deserts Formation of deserts Extinction of species Extinction of species Global climate changes Global climate changes

18 Forest Trends in US o Most temperature forest are steady or expanding o Returning stands lack biodiversity of original forests o More than half of US forest are privately owned (right) Forest Legacy Program Forest Legacy Program Conservation easement Conservation easement

19 US National Forests o Managed for multiple uses Timber harvest Timber harvest Livestock forage Livestock forage Water resource and watershed protection Water resource and watershed protection Mining, hunting, fishing, etc. Mining, hunting, fishing, etc. o Road building is an issue Provides logging companies with access to forest Provides logging companies with access to forest o Clearcutting is an issue

20 Case-In-Point Tongass National Park o One of worlds few temperate rainforests o Prime logging area o Modified 1997 Forest Plan o Roadless Area Conservation Rule (2000) o Politics rules government agencies

21 Trends in Tropical Forests o Tropical rainforests (below) and tropical dry forests

22 Disappearing Tropical Rain Forests o Population growth Cannot account for all of it Cannot account for all of it o Immediate causes Subsistence agriculture Subsistence agriculture Commercial logging Commercial logging Cattle ranching Cattle ranching o Other causes Mining Mining Hydroelectric power Hydroelectric power

23 Disappearing Tropical Dry Forests o Primarily destroyed for fuelwood Used for heating and cooking Used for heating and cooking

24 Boreal Forests o Worlds largest biome o Extensive clearcutting Primary source of worlds industrial wood and wood fiber Primary source of worlds industrial wood and wood fiber

25 Rangeland and Agricultural lands o Rangeland Land that is not intensively managed and is used for grazing livestock Land that is not intensively managed and is used for grazing livestock

26 Rangeland Degradation and Deforestation o Overgrazing leaves ground barren Animals exceed their carrying capacity Animals exceed their carrying capacity o Land degradation Natural or human-induced process that decreases future ability of land to support crops or livestock Natural or human-induced process that decreases future ability of land to support crops or livestock o Desertification Degradation of once fertile land into nonproductive desert Degradation of once fertile land into nonproductive desert

27 Rangeland Trends in US o Make up 30% of total US land area 2/3 privately owned 2/3 privately owned o Pressure from developers to subdivide o Public rangeland managed by: Taylor Grazing Act (1934) Taylor Grazing Act (1934) Federal Land Policy and Management Act (1976) Federal Land Policy and Management Act (1976) o Conditions of public rangeland are slowly improving Grazing fees is an issue Grazing fees is an issue

28 Agricultural Land o US has 300 million acres of prime farmland o Much is being overtaken by suburban sprawl Parking lots Parking lots Housing developments Housing developments Shopping malls Shopping malls

29 Wetlands o Lands that are usually covered with water for at least part of the year o Have characteristic soils and water- tolerant vegetation o Benefits Habitat for migratory waterfowl and wildlife Habitat for migratory waterfowl and wildlife Recharge groundwater Recharge groundwater Reduce damage from flooding Reduce damage from flooding Improve water quality Improve water quality Produce many commercially important products Produce many commercially important products

30 Wetlands o Human activity that threatens wetlands Drainage for agriculture or mosquito control Drainage for agriculture or mosquito control Dredging for navigation Dredging for navigation Construction of dams, dykes or seawalls Construction of dams, dykes or seawalls Filling in for solid waste disposal Filling in for solid waste disposal Road building Road building Mining for gravel, fossil fuels, etc. Mining for gravel, fossil fuels, etc. o Shrinking 58,500 acres per year

31 Restoring Wetlands o No Net Loss of Wetlands: o Development of wetlands is allowed if corresponding amount of previously converted wetland is restored o Not all wetland restorations are successful

32 Coastlines o Coastal wetlands Provide food and habitat for many aquatic animals Provide food and habitat for many aquatic animals Historically regarded as wasteland Historically regarded as wasteland o US starting to see importance of protecting this environment Retaining seawalls (right) Retaining seawalls (right)

33 Coastal Demographics o Many coastal areas overdeveloped 3.8 billion people live within 150km of coastline 3.8 billion people live within 150km of coastline 6.4 billion people will likely live there by billion people will likely live there by 2025 o United States 14 of 20 largest US cities along coast 14 of 20 largest US cities along coast 19 of 20 most densely populated countries along coasts 19 of 20 most densely populated countries along coasts

34 Conservation and Land Resources o All types of ecosystems must be preserved o Four criteria of importance: Areas lost or degraded since European colonization Areas lost or degraded since European colonization Number of present examples of a particular ecosystem (or the total area) Number of present examples of a particular ecosystem (or the total area) Estimate of the likelihood that a given ecosystem will lost a significant area or be degraded in next 10 years Estimate of the likelihood that a given ecosystem will lost a significant area or be degraded in next 10 years Number of threatened and endangered species living in the ecosystem Number of threatened and endangered species living in the ecosystem

35 Conservation and Land Resources


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